ethnic group

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ethnic group

a group of people sharing an identity which arises from a collective sense of a distinctive history (see also ETHNICITY). Ethnic groups possess their own CULTURE, CUSTOMS, NORMS, beliefs and traditions. There is usually a common LANGUAGE, and boundary maintenance is observed between members and non-members. As well as by birth, ethnic group membership may be acquired through marriage or other socially sanctioned routes.

Whilst socially perceived racial characteristics may be a feature of such groups, ethnic groups are not synonymous with racial groups (see RACE). According to C. Peach et al. (1981), British academic concern with the subject of ethnicity increased as a result of black immigration in the postwar period. Thus, despite the presence of immigrants, refugees and ethnic minorities prior to this period, it was the combination of racial and ethnic distinctiveness which gave rise to both popular and academic interest in the subject. One result of this has been the confusion of the term ‘ethnic minority’ with racial minority, in the UK culture.

The anthropologist, Narroll (1964), stressed the importance of shared cultural values and a group awareness of cultural distinctiveness as key elements in ethnic group membership. Barth (1970) places emphasis on group organization and the maintenance of ethnic boundaries via ETHNIC MARKERS. He suggests that the boundaries between ethnic groups are maintained not through isolation, as Narroll argues, but through social processes of exclusion and incorporation, i.e. ethnic group members identify themselves in terms of ethnic categories and are in turn recognized as members by outsiders. REX (1986), in turn, has criticized Barth for his failure to consider conflict between ethnic groups and for his imprecise use of the term ‘group’. Rex also raises the question, immigrants aside, of the continued saliency of ethnic groupings in complex industrial societies and the utility of the concept as a precise basis of classification.

In societies in turmoil, however, ethnic groupings retain their importance and may be given added salience (or constructed) by political conflict, as in the former Yugoslavia, where the highly charged phrase ‘ethnic cleansing’ has appeared. An important distinction must therefore be drawn between those ethnic groups which consciously seek to assert their ethnicity, and those seen as ethnic minorities by more powerful groups (see also HOLOCAUST, GENOCIDE). In such cases, ethnic characteristics may be exaggerated or created to serve group interests and cohesion as well as to fuel conflict. The reverse side of the coin is when complex symbolic practices may be mobilized not to accentuate boundaries and divisions between groups, but to understate these in order to maximize INTEGRATION or ASSIMILATION. For example, in contemporary Britain, Pakistani Christian refugees may seek to minimize group differences. There are also cases in which ethnic group differences may be formulated in a climate of CULTURAL PLURALISM.

Where ethnicity is the basis for minority status, discriminatory practices against such groups may be legitimated by institutionalized means. As is widely apparent, ethnic minority status often seriously jeopardizes an individual's or group's life chances, particularly in relation to health, housing and employment.

It should also be noted that approaches to social stratification based on economic inequality find it difficult to treat the question of ethnicity adequately. See STATUS CONSISTENCY AND INCONSISTENCY. See also RACISM.

Ethnic Group


(Russian, etnicheskaia gruppa), a community of people that have similar languages and cultures. Examples of an ethnic group are the ancient Slavs and the ancient Germans. Typical ethnic groups today are the Celtic peoples, who no longer speak a common language but have preserved their cultural and ethnographic identity; the Paleoasiatic peoples of the northeastern USSR; the Eskimo of the USSR, Canada, the USA, and Greenland; the American Indians; and the Arabs of Asia and Africa. An ethnic group should be distinguished from an ethnographic group, which is a segment of a people.

References in periodicals archive ?
While this study did not explore the influence of ethnic identity on academic success, there is a need for future research to explore the relation between aboriginal students' ethnic identity and academic success, the association between aboriginal students' ethnic identity and health-risk behaviors, and how the parents are affected when their children affirm their ethnic identity.
Ethnic group membership may relate to specific serial argument behaviors, but the strength of one's ethnic identity should also be examined, as it reflects how closely one identifies with a group's values and behaviors.
Gushue and Whitson (2006) examined the influence of ethnic identity and parent/teacher support on the cognitive variables of CDSE and outcome expectations in a sample of 104 African American ninth-grade high school students.
Additional research is warranted to understand how some Latina/o students' ethnic identity and acculturation levels lead to increased self-efficacy beliefs and reduced career barrier perceptions.
Thus, to recognize a person with an ethnic identity means that one has to accept a system of internal values that the ethnic identity has acquired through history.
In Sarawak, it is easier to trace ethnic identity change over time as it holds only two elections: state and national.
Are there significant relationships among bullying behaviors, victimization experiences, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being?
As individuals progress through these statuses, they go from low awareness of their ethnic identity to a position of high awareness of and commitment to their ethnic identity.
Acknowledging the view of cultural psychologists and value-based clinicians that spirituality may be laden with cultural orientations and ethnic values for many clients, I attempted to study the cultural aspects of spirituality through spiritual transcendence, cultural worldview of individualism-collectivism, and the process of ethnic identity.
While the socioeconomic attainment of immigrant offspring has been extensively studied, their psychosocial adaptation or ethnic identity attainment has not, at least in Canada (Walters et al.

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