Eucommia

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Eucommia

 

the sole genus of plants of the family Eucommiaceae. The single species, Eucommia ulmoides, is native to China. A deciduous tree reaching 10–20 m in height, it has elongate or oblong-ovate serrated alternate leaves. Some shrub forms are known. The plants are mostly dioecious, with small regular flowers lacking a perianth. The ovary consists of two carpels but is single-valved. The fruit is closed, usually one-seeded, and winged. There are laticiferous cells in all parts of the plant except the wood and seeds; the cells contain gutta, the main component of gutta-percha.

Since early antiquity, Eucommia has been used as a medicinal plant to treat broken bones and various internal diseases; it has also been used as a tonic. In the USSR the plant is cultivated primarily in Transcaucasia, Krasnodar Krai, Moldavia, and Middle Asia mainly for the extraction of gutta-percha. It is also cultivated as an ornamental. The bark is used medicinally for the preparation of decoctions, fluid extracts, and tinctures that are used as antispasmodic and hypotensive agents to treat the early stages of hypertension.

REFERENCE

Kalantyr’, M. S. “Issledovaniia po razvedeniiu i vyrashchivaniiu evkommii v SSSR.” In Lesovodstvo i agrolesomelioratsiia. Moscow, 1959.

M. E. KIRPICHNIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Latin name Family 1 Cerasus polytricha Rosaceae 2 Schisandra chinensis Magnoliaceae 3 Litsea pungens Lauraceae 4 Kerria japonica Rosaceae 5 Euonymus verrucosoides Celastraceae 6 Ulmus bergmanniana Ulmaceae 7 Lindera obtusiloba Lauraceae 8 Lonicera fragrantissima standishii Caprifoliaceae 9 Malus baccata Rosaceae 10 Rhus potaninii Anacardiaceae 11 Celastrus orbiculatus Celastraceae 12 Acer elegantulum Aceraceae 13 Acer davidii Aceraceae 14 Melia azedarach Meliaceae 15 Eucommia ulmoides Eucommiaceae 16 Swida walteri Cornaceae 17 Akebia trifoliata Lardizabalaceae Basis for the selection 1 a 2 a 3 b 4 b 5 b 6 a 7 b 8 b 9 a 10 a 11 b 12 b 13 b 14 a 15 a 16 a 17 b Table 2.
0 0 Eremosynaceae Eremosyne 0 0 0 2 Ericaceae Erica Ericales 0 0 0 1 Escalloniaceae Escallonia 0 D 0 0 Eucommiaceae Eucommia Garryales 1 0 0 -- Fouqueriaceae Fouqueria Ericales 0 1 0 0 Garryaceae Aucuba Garryales 1 ?
This is true, for example, of the root of ginseng (Panax ginseng), and wu wei zi, the magnolia vine (Schisandra chinensis), gan gao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), du zhong (Eucommia ulmoides, the only member of its family, the Eucommiaceae, and which is endemic to the Chinese evergreen broadleaf forests), and ginger (Zin-giber officinale).
In Eucommiaceae the female flowers of Eucornmia are pseudomonomerous and thus monosymmetric by reduction (Eckardt, 1957).
Eucommiaceae by Call & Dilcher, 1997, Symplocaceae by Kirchheimer, 1949 and Mai & Martinetto, 2006 or Comaceae by Manchester, 2002), the relatively scarce fossil record of the group has never undergone specialized systematic revision or comprehensive treatment.
The family's exact position continues to be ambiguous, but the APG (1998) classified it as a member of Garryales along with Eucommiaceae, Garryaceae, and Aucubaceae, based on rbcL sequences (Savolainen et al.