Eugene Oneill

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O’neill, Eugene

 

Born Oct. 16, 1888, in New York; died Nov. 27, 1953, in Boston. American playwright.

O’Neill attended Catholic schools and a nonsectarian academy. In 1906 he entered Princeton University but left after a year. He worked as a seaman, and he was a reporter for a small-town newspaper. In 1914–15 he studied drama at Harvard University. He began his literary career as a poet. O’Neill’s first theatrical endeavors (the collection Thirst and Other One-Act Plays, 1914) were performed by an experimental theater in Provincetown, Mass. The psychological play Beyond the Horizon (1920, staged 1920; Pulitzer Prize) raised the problem of the tragic conflict between fantasy and reality.

O’Neill wrote a number of plays in an expressionistic style. The Hairy Ape (1922; Russian translation, 1925) is about the dehumanization of the individual in capitalist society, and All God’s Chillun Got Wings (written and staged in 1924; Russian translation, Negr [The Negro], 1930), a psychological drama, was one of the first American plays to draw attention to racial problems. Desire Under the Elms (written and staged in 1925; Russian translation, 1927) is a variation on the classic tragedy of property. Also written in an expressionistic style is Marco Millions (1927, staged 1928), a criticism of bourgeois civilization. During the 1920’s, O’Neill’s plays were staged in the USSR.

Toward the end of the 1920’s a crisis emerged in O’Neill’s creative work (the play Strange Interlude, 1928, which is marked by the writer’s interest in Freudian psychoanalysis). Among the later plays are Dynamo (1929), Days Without End (1934), and The Iceman Cometh (1939, published 1946). In 1934, O’Neill began work on a dramatic saga, A Tale of Possessors Self-dispossessed, which he conceptualized as an 11-play cycle covering life in America from 1775 to 1932. A few months before his death he destroyed the manuscripts of six of these plays. The most important of his autobiographical plays are A Moon for the Misbegotten (1942; published 1945; staged 1957) and Long Day’s Journey Into Night (1941; staged 1956). Characteristic of O’Neill’s style is realism combined with naturalism and expressionism. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1936.

WORKS

The Plays, vols. 1–3. New York, 1934.
Ah, Wilderness! … [Harmondsworth, 1966].
In Russian translation:
Zoloto. Moscow, 1928.
P’esy, vols. 1–2. [Moscow, 1971.]

REFERENCES

Startsev, A. “Neizvestnaia p’esa Iu. O’Nila.” In Inostrannaia literatura, 1956, no. 11.
Zlobin, G.“Liudi, obokravshie samikh sebia.” Ibid., 1965, no. 7.
Gelb, A., and B. Gelb. O’Neill. New York [1962].
Sheaffer, L. O’Neill, Son and Playwright. Boston-Toronto [1968].
Törnqvist, E. A Drama of Souls. New Haven-London, 1969.

E. IU. GENIEVA

References in periodicals archive ?
To celebrate Mae West's birthday in mid-August, there will be an illustrated talk: "Mae West in Bohemia — — Gin, Sin, Censorship, and Eugene O'Neill.
At one point, while he was employed by a local newspaper, Eugene O'Neill actually had a room at the Packard (Louis Sheaffer, O'Neill: Son and Playwright [Boston: Little, Brown, 1968], 261).
Anna Christie and the 'Fallen Woman Genre'" The Eugene O'Neill Review 19 (1995): 67-80.
You were Artistic Director of the National Playwrights Conference at the Eugene O'Neill Memorial Theater Center for over three decades, which is devoted to discovering and developing new plays.
This month (September 25-28), the National Park Service and the Eugene O'Neill Foundation will put on the fourth annual Eugene O'Neill Festival, which features O'Neill, the Rhythms of His Soul, a revue of the songs from O'Neill's plays.
Egri's respective examples range from the intricate poetic structures he pinpoints in "Proteus" to the symbols and visions in the early plays of Eugene O'Neill.
In 1998 Donald Gallup published Eugene O'Neill and His Eleven-Play Cycle.
At the other end Eugene O'Neill came off the bench at half-time for Lar Corbett and banged in 2-1 to seal Wexford's fate.
Eugene O'Neill was one of those figures in American arts and letters whose principal stock in trade was domestic agony.
Eliot (#384), James Joyce (#58a), Eugene O'Neill (#162), and Emily Dickinson (#202); and even the occasional useful piece, such as "How to Start your own Religion" (#282).
The Library of America has given us already the collected poems, prose, and plays of Robert Frost, the collected poetry and prose of Wallace Stevens, even the complete plays (in three volumes, each weighing in at over a thousand pages) of Eugene O'Neill, and so it is disappointing that the editors have chosen to excerpt Stein's work.
McCabe, Conference Administrator, Eugene O'Neill Theater Center, 234 W.