Euripides


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.
Euripides
BirthplaceSalamís
Occupation
Playwright

Euripides

(yo͝orĭp`ĭdēz), 480 or 485–406 B.C., Greek tragic dramatist, ranking with AeschylusAeschylus
, 525–456 B.C., Athenian tragic dramatist, b. Eleusis. The first of the three great Greek writers of tragedy, Aeschylus was the predecessor of Sophocles and Euripides.

Aeschylus fought at Marathon and at Salamis. In 476 B.C.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and SophoclesSophocles
, c.496 B.C.–406 B.C., Greek tragic dramatist, younger contemporary of Aeschylus and older contemporary of Euripides, b. Colonus, near Athens. A man of wealth, charm, and genius, Sophocles was given posts of responsibility in peace and in war by the Athenians.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Born in Attica, he lived in Athens most of his life, though he spent much time on Salamis. He died in Macedonia, at the court of King Archelaus. He wrote perhaps 92 plays (the first produced in 455); during his lifetime he won only four first prizes (the first in 441) at the competition held at the annual spring festival of Dionysus in Athens. There are 19 of his plays extant (including one that is doubtful): Cyclops (date unknown), the only complete extant Greek satyr play; Alcestis (438); the Heraclidae (c.430?), a patriotic play inspired by the Peloponnesian War; Medea (431); Hippolytus (428); Andromache (426?); Hecuba (425?); the Suppliants and Hercules Furens (both c.420); Electra (417?); the Trojan Women (415), an indictment of war; Helena (412); Ion (c.412); Iphigenia in Tauris (date uncertain); the Phoenician Women (c.409), on the story of the Seven against ThebesSeven against Thebes,
in Greek legend, seven heroes—Polynices, Adrastus, Amphiaraüs, Hippomedon, Capaneus, Tydeus, and Parthenopaeus—who made war on Eteocles, king of Thebes.
..... Click the link for more information.
; Orestes (408); Iphigenia in Aulis and the Bacchae, on the PentheusPentheus
, in Greek mythology, king of Thebes, son of Cadmus' daughter Agave. When Dionysus came to Thebes, Pentheus denied his divinity and tried to prevent his ecstatic rites. The women of Thebes, led by Agave, were driven mad by the offended god and tore Pentheus to pieces.
..... Click the link for more information.
 story, both posthumously produced (405); and Rhesus, doubtfully attributed to Euripides. Provocative, concerned with problems and conflicts sometimes disturbing to his audiences, Euripides displays a rationalistic and iconoclastic attitude toward the gods and an interest in less heroic, even homely, characters. He brings the mythical stories down to the immediate contemporary and human level. His sense of dramatic situation and plot construction go beyond Aeschylus and Sophocles, and what his plays may lack in grandeur they make up in penetration. His choral passages (interludes in, rather than parts of, the action) have remarkable lyric power. Euripides uses the prologue to get into the situation as rapidly as possible, sacrificing a proper exposition of previous action, and he uses the deus ex machina [god from a machine] to cut through and resolve the play's problem. His popularity increased after his death, and his plays were revived more than those of Aeschylus or Sophocles. Among the many translations of Euripides is The Complete Greek Tragedies, ed. by Richmond Lattimore and David Grene (1956–59).

Bibliography

See studies by G. Murray (1918, 2d ed. repr. 1965), T. B. L. Webster (1967), and A. P. Burnett (1972).

Euripides

 

Born circa 480 B.C., in Athens; died 406 B.C., in Macedonia. Classical Greek dramatist.

Euripides wrote 92 tragedies, of which 17 have survived, along with one satyr play (Cyclops). He wrote during a period of crisis for the Athenian city-state, years that saw the decay of traditional ethical standards. In Heraclidae he extols Athens for protecting the progeny of Heracles, and in the tragedy Iphigenia in Aulis the heroine is to die for the sake of a Greek victory; however, in The Trojan Women he protests the Athenian policy of conquest; he is disturbed in The Suppliants by the social stratification of democratic Athens, and in Orestes, by the vigorous activity of the demagogues. The disintegration of city-state ties spawned in Euripides an interest in man’s inner world, and he portrayed people “as they really are” (in the words of Sophocles) rather than in standardized, exalted form. Medea’s emotional state is occasioned by the struggle between her hatred for Jason, who has forsaken her, and her maternal feelings (Medea). In the character of Phaedra, Euripides elaborated the psychology of a woman’s love for the first time in Greek tragedy (Hippolytus). His mastery in conveying suffering justified calling him, even in antiquity, “the most tragic of the poets.” Religious doubts, too, emerge in Euripides, as seen in the critical remarks about the gods by characters in Electra, Ion, and other tragedies. Occasionally he voices thoughts on the injustice of slavery and the trammeled status of woman in the family. Elements of everyday life invade his dramas, represented not only by servants, wet nurses, and tutors, but by mythological protagonists as well. The role of the chorus is curtailed in Euripides’ works; not infrequently, he dissociates the choral parts from the matter of the play. In his last plays, Euripides is prone to employ the device of deus ex machina.

WORKS

Texte établi et trad, par L. Méridier, L. Parmentier et H. Grégoire, vols. 1–6. Paris, 1942–59.
In Russian translation:
Tragedii, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1969.

REFERENCES

Beliaev, D. F. K voprosu o mirovozzrenii Evripida. Kazan, 1878.
Istoriia grecheskoi literatury, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1946. Chapter 24.
Tronskii, I. M. Istoriia antichnoi literatury, 3rd ed. Leningrad, 1957, Chapter 2, § 5.
Murray, G. Euripides and His Age, 2nd ed. London, 1947.
Euripides: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. [1968]. (Bibliography, pp. 175–77.)

V. N. IARKHO

Euripides

?480--406 bc, Greek tragic dramatist. His plays, 18 of which are extant, include Alcestis, Medea, Hippolytus, Hecuba, Trojan Women, Electra, Iphigeneia in Tauris, Iphigeneia in Aulis, and Bacchae
References in periodicals archive ?
At this early point, the question may arise whether this analysis will somehow cast Euripides as an atheist or as a critic of religious belief, for the discussion below will address Apollo's role in the continuation of troubling intra-familial violence and ritual corruption.
30pm, Tickets PS7/PS5 THE most shocking play from the Classical Greek Age from the pen of 'that most tragic of tragedians' - Euripides.
CEO of ETA ASCON Construction, Panicos Euripides, said: "The UAE is an important market for the Group; and although the country faced challenging times in the past, the construction sector is healthy.
Among the special guests were Cyprus's High Commissioner, Mr Euripides Evriviades, E and The General Consul of Greece, Mr Sotirios Demestichas, as well as The Bishop of Warwick, John Stroyan, the Lord Mayor of Coventry, Coun Hazel Noonan, and Canon Gary Byrne from Birmingham.
Over 500 people packed out the Greek Orthodox Cathedral of St Andreas for a special ceremony held to celebrate the father-ofone's achievement - including Birmingham's Deputy Lord Mayor Coun John Lines, Lord Lieutenant of the West Midlands Paul Sabapathy and His Excellency The High Commissioner of Cyprus Euripides Evriviades.
The High Commissioner of the Republic of Cyprus in the UK Euripides Evriviades held a meeting on Wednesday with the Secretary-General of the London-based International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Koji Sekimizu, during which he presented his credentials as the country's new Permanent Representative to the Organisation
The Greek classic play by Euripides, which will be performed on three consecutive nights, will premiere today.
The irony of the "democratic" impulse in this context, which Euripides also expressed, feeds not the collective good but instead the individual desire for stability and security, which usually maintains an unjust status quo.
They are strewn all over his writings-poems and passages from Euripides, W.
Two years ago, the Greek tenor performed God Apollo in the world premier of "Phaethon" tragedy of Euripides.
DURING all this recent election stuff I recalled the words of Euripides, the Greek playwright and philosopher: "Spare me the sight of this thankless breed, these politicians who cringe for favours from a screaming mob and do not care what harm they do their friends, providing they can please a crowd.