European Coal and Steel Community


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Related to European Coal and Steel Community: European Union, European Economic Community, EEC

European Coal and Steel Community

(ECSC), 1st treaty organization of what has become the European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
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; established by the Treaty of Paris (1952). It is also known as the Schuman Plan, after the French foreign minister, Robert SchumanSchuman, Robert
, 1886–1963, French statesman and lawyer, b. grand duchy of Luxembourg. A member of the Catholic Mouvement Républicain Populaire (MRP), he was finance minister (1946, 1947) and premier (1947–48).
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, who proposed it in 1950. Member nations of ECSC pledged to pool their coal and steel resources by providing a unified market for their coal and steel products, lifting restrictions on imports and exports, and creating a unified labor market. Economically, the Coal and Steel Community achieved early success; between 1952 and 1960 iron and steel production rose by 75% in the ECSC nations, and industrial production rose 58%. When overproduction of coal became a problem after 1959, especially in Belgium, the ECSC demonstrated its flexibility by reducing Belgium's coal-producing capacity by 30% and by making available large sums of money to aid in retraining miners and developing new industries. The ECSC had, by 1970, granted about $150 million in aid to retrain over 400,000 coal miners. The executive machinery of the ECSC provided an important precedent for the future growth of a united Europe: the nine-member High Authority, which became a part of the European Commission in 1967, was chosen by the member governments and made independent of those governments. Its independence was guaranteed by providing the authority with its own source of income.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community [a precursor to the EU] laid down some fundamental structures, Europe's subsequent dynamic trial-and-error growth has resulted in a Community that is very different from the original vision, an entity that does not just follow simple formulas from legal textbooks and political scientists, but is modified as circumstances require.
As the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) expires, the European Commission has taken a final decision on amounts of aid which France paid to its coal industry for 1998 to 2001.
The new state aid regime, which will take over from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty from July 23, when it expires, is due to be reviewed in 2007, to ensure that it continues to respond appropriately to the state of the coal industry and the wider energy sector.
Germany, which initially opposed the decision, changed its stance after securing assurances from the countries concerned that they would support the pursuit of coal sector aid beyond the expiry of the European Coal and Steel Community Treaty in June.
A series of Commission Decisions tabled on April 26 will, if approved by the EU Council of Ministers and the Consultative Committee of the European Coal and Steel Community, extend previous agreements with the two countries.
The European Commission adopted a report on April 10 on a pilot project for job creation in coal- and steel-producing regions in the EU after the expiry of the European Coal and Steel Community Treaty in July.
The EU Member States have in the end managed to solve the tricky legal issue the failure to ratify the Treaty of Nice raised for managing European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) assets after it is wound up this Summer.
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