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the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas


the political rule, either directly or indirectly, of one society, country or nation over another.

Colonialism, however, involves more than just political rule. In the 20th century it has been particularly associated with one ETHNIC GROUP dominating another within the dominated group's territory Thus, in this century, colonialism has been associated with European, white, Christian, wealthy rulers who have attempted to impose cultural values over the ruled by either devaluing or attempting to eradicate the colonized groups’ religions, languages, customary laws and economic activities. Colonialism has therefore been seen by many sociologists as closely associated with the development of RACISM. Also in this century colonization has been associated with the dominance of the colony's economy by the colonizer, and it is this that is one of the key differences which Marxist writers see as distinguishing 20th-century colonization from earlier forms. See IMPERIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM.

Various forms of colonial rule have existed in history, but one important distinction is between direct and indirect rule. In this century, the British in Africa often relied on indirect rule, nominating indigenous people or institutions as representatives of the British crown, whilst the French imposed direct rule from Paris through French officials. See also ORIENTALISM, POST-COLONIAL THEORY.



the political, economic, and ideological subjugation of countries that are, as a rule, poorly developed socially and economically, by the ruling classes of exploiter states. This concept is usually applied to the age of monopoly capitalism, when a territorial partition of the world has been completed and the colonial system of imperialism has taken shape. The term “colonialism” is also used to mean “colonial system.”

References in periodicals archive ?
It is a caldron of tribal and religious hatreds burdened by the humiliating memory of Ottoman imperialism and European colonialism.
Going by the stance some leaders are taking on matters in the Middle East and North Africa, there must be those in the EU that think the quick way of getting out of the economic mess is a partial revival of European Colonialism in some of these areas as they remember the glorious days between the 16th and 20th centuries when, with their military might, European nations were controlling most of the resources on the planet, including people.
With this attitude vis-a-vis Algeria and the Algerians, Hollande is speaking in the name of the entire European colonialism.
2 ALMAYER'S FOLLY (Chantal Akerman) and TABU (Miguel Gomes) The year's best imaginary double bill--two reflections on the lunacy of European colonialism, both inspired by the 1931 Murnau-Flaherty faux doc Tabu: A Story of the South Seas.
While most Western scholars see ideas of race and nation as imposed on Africans by European colonialism and the European and Arab slave trades, Brennan and his Tanzanian informants point out that taifa is an African idea, shaped by relationships between Africans and Indians.
Even as Indian leaders speak of India and Africa's cultural linkages and mutual struggles against European colonialism, there is a way India sees itself in a category different from those on the continent.
In this case, the crisis at the time signaled an end of the era of European colonialism, but we may also look back on these events now with the hindsight that the Middle East was replacing Europe as the prime focus of U.
Bands of hunter gatherer societies were faced with the rising challenge of European colonialism and often faced militia over two centuries, leaving a people defeated in the modern day.
Refers to nature of 19th century European colonialism.
They were not the first round of European colonialism.
In the Caribbean, African roots, European colonialism, and American New World presences combine and interact, constituting a complex, postcolonial, diasporic subjectivity.
In the introduction to their book The Battle of Adwa, Reflections on Ethiopia s History against European Colonialism, editors Paulos Milkias and Getachew Metaferia wrote, "Adwa holds a significant place in Africa's history.

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