colonialism

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colonialism

the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas

colonialism

the political rule, either directly or indirectly, of one society, country or nation over another.

Colonialism, however, involves more than just political rule. In the 20th century it has been particularly associated with one ETHNIC GROUP dominating another within the dominated group's territory Thus, in this century, colonialism has been associated with European, white, Christian, wealthy rulers who have attempted to impose cultural values over the ruled by either devaluing or attempting to eradicate the colonized groups’ religions, languages, customary laws and economic activities. Colonialism has therefore been seen by many sociologists as closely associated with the development of RACISM. Also in this century colonization has been associated with the dominance of the colony's economy by the colonizer, and it is this that is one of the key differences which Marxist writers see as distinguishing 20th-century colonization from earlier forms. See IMPERIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM.

Various forms of colonial rule have existed in history, but one important distinction is between direct and indirect rule. In this century, the British in Africa often relied on indirect rule, nominating indigenous people or institutions as representatives of the British crown, whilst the French imposed direct rule from Paris through French officials. See also ORIENTALISM, POST-COLONIAL THEORY.

Colonialism

 

the political, economic, and ideological subjugation of countries that are, as a rule, poorly developed socially and economically, by the ruling classes of exploiter states. This concept is usually applied to the age of monopoly capitalism, when a territorial partition of the world has been completed and the colonial system of imperialism has taken shape. The term “colonialism” is also used to mean “colonial system.”

References in periodicals archive ?
Colonialism and its exploitation and repercussions in all spheres of life are as broad as those of European colonialism and its exploitation of postcolonial countries.
Nevertheless, this was obtained via mutually agreed bilateral agreement with a sovereign state, rather than by coercive means, as was the case under European colonialism.
In summation, this book is likely to have a wide appeal not only to scholars and students of Zimbabwe, but to a broader range of social historians who are interested in understanding the complex ways in which power was exercised in the name of European colonialism.
Future studies relating to colonialism and racialization should seek to investigate for example 19th century European colonialism and genocide in Africa.
Given that jurisdictional fragmentation cannot be firmly cabined into the "early modern" period, and hence that this is no story about the "early modern" alone, one could well ask what might be at stake in writing the history of European colonialism as a history of jurisdictional fragmentation.
Although Marx was not entirely free of "orientalist" blinders, his scattered and unsystematic indictments of European colonialism clearly exposed the naked self-interest and brutality that lay lightly buried beneath the paternalist conceits that liberal humanitarians espoused.
While discussing the experience of the post-9/11 world, Icons of War and Terror offers useful contextualisation by comparing iconic images of European colonialism, the Spanish Civil War and the Vietnam War.
Chung closely associates Christian missions with European colonialism and evaluates both movements through largely Marxist and postmodern lenses: that is, the advance of the Christian religion is inherently oppressive and the advance of the gospel imperialistic (93-95).
However, as modern imperialism was a multinational undertaking, Switzerland's people as well as Swiss industry were definitively involved in European colonialism in Southeast Asia.
Going by the stance some leaders are taking on matters in the Middle East and North Africa, there must be those in the EU that think the quick way of getting out of the economic mess is a partial revival of European Colonialism in some of these areas as they remember the glorious days between the 16th and 20th centuries when, with their military might, European nations were controlling most of the resources on the planet, including people.
With this attitude vis-a-vis Algeria and the Algerians, Hollande is speaking in the name of the entire European colonialism.
While most Western scholars see ideas of race and nation as imposed on Africans by European colonialism and the European and Arab slave trades, Brennan and his Tanzanian informants point out that taifa is an African idea, shaped by relationships between Africans and Indians.

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