a city in the Crimean Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. Evpatoriia is a seaside climatological, mud, and balneological resort in the Crimea, primarily for children, and is situated on the shore of a vast shallow gulf of the Black Sea, 64 km northwest of Simferopol’. It has a railroad station. Population, 79,000 (1970).
The Greeks founded a colony, Cercinitus, on the site of present-day Evpatoriia between the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. The city was captured by the Scythians in the second century B.C. and ceased to exist roughly in the fourth century A.D. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Turkish fortress and city of Gezlev, a center of slave trade in the Crimea, stood on the site of Cercinitus. After Russia incorporated the Crimea, Gezlev was renamed Evpatoriia in 1784. Repeatedly captured by the troops of the Entente and the White Guards in the Civil War (1918-20), Evpatoriia was liberated once and for all by the Red Army on Nov. 13, 1920. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-45), it was occupied by the German fascist troops from Oct. 31, 1941, to Apr. 13, 1944. After the liberation of Evpatoriia, the resort and the industry of the city were restored.
Evpatoriia is the site of repair plants, wineries, and dairy and fish-packing plants. It has a beach that is from 20 m to 100 m wide and consists of fine sand. The summer is warm, with an average June temperature of 23°C; the winter is mild, with an average February temperature of -10°C. Precipitation is about 380 mm a year. The therapeutic means of the resort include air, sun, and saltwater therapy, sand baths, the ooze and brine of Lake Moinak, and hot (39°C) sodium chloride water, which is used for baths. Children are treated in Evpatoriia for bone and joint tuberculosis, aftereffects of poliomyelitis and cerebral paralysis, chronic joint rheumatism, illnesses of the motor-sensory system and con-sequences of such illnesses, and chronic nasopharyngeal illnesses and nontubercular illnesses of the upper respiratory tracts. Adults are treated for illnesses of the motor organs and the nervous system, gynecological and nasopharyngeal illnesses, and nontubercular illnesses of the upper respiratory tracts. Evpatoriia has sanatoriums, a mud-therapy clinic, a tourism base, a resort polyclinic, boarding houses for adults with or without children, rest homes, and Pioneer camps.
REFERENCESKazunin, F., and V. lagupov. Evpatoriia: Kratkii kraevedcheskii ocherk. Simferopol’, 1963.
Grigor’ev, N. N., and S. S. Severinov. Evpatoriia—kurort. Simferopol’, 1969.
Girgens, G. G., and A. E. Kozlov. Evpatoriia: Ocherk-putevoditel’. Simferopol’, 1969.