Excavation

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excavation

[‚ek·skə′vā·shən]
(archeology)
Process of removing earth, stone, or other materials covering the remains of ancient civilizations.
(civil engineering)
The process of digging a hollow in the earth.
An uncovered cavity in the ground.

Excavation

The removal of earth from its natural position; the cavity that results from the removal of earth.

Excavation

 

the process of removing rock or earth from a solid, broken, or unconsolidated layer by means of an excavator, bulldozer, scraper, or similar machine. In earthwork practice, the term “excavation” may also include the entire work cycle, that is, digging, transportation, and dumping of the earth with excavators.

Soft, loose, and dense rock is usually excavated directly from the solid formation by successive removal of layers of ground; rock that has been broken up beforehand is excavated from piles or loosened layers. Three types of excavation are distinguished according to the mutual position of the face and the horizon on which the machine is working: the face may be above or below the machine horizon, or a combination of the two arrangements may be used. Because digging is the principal component of the process of excavation, it is conventional to describe the process with respect to the specific resistance to digging. This quantity is affected by the physicomechanical properties of the rock or earth, the type of excavating machine used, the design and dimensions of the working member, and the procedure followed in working the face.

REFERENCES

Dombrovskii, N. G. Ekskavatory. Moscow, 1969.
Rzhevskii, V. V. Protsessy otkrytykh gornykh rabot, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.
Beliakov, Iu. I., and V. M. Vladimirov. Sovershenstvovanie ekskavatornykh rabot na kar’erakh. Moscow, 1974.

IU. D. BUIANOV

excavation

excavation
1. The removal of earth from its natural position.
2. The cavity resulting from the removal of earth.
References in classic literature ?
The amphitheatre, like all I had ever seen upon Barsoom, was built in a large excavation.
Tarzan dropped to the ground and commenced to examine the earth about the excavation.
There has been a good deal of excavation going on there ever since.
A rigorous search disclosed nothing more than was already known about the dead man, and much patient excavation here and there about the premises by thoughtful and thrifty neighbors went unrewarded.
The work of excavation was not difficult: the earth with which the grave had been loosely filled a few hours before offered little resistance and was soon thrown out.
A party of forty or fifty warriors were awaiting us at the brink of the excavation some hundred yards from the hut.
They had laughed at the old navigator's child-like credulity; and yet here stood himself, Bassett, on the rim of an excavation for all the world like the diamond pits of South Africa.
The nature of the soil having been carefully examined, by means of repeated borings, the work of excavation was fixed for the
I am well aware that this doctrine of natural selection, exemplified in the above imaginary instances, is open to the same objections which were at first urged against Sir Charles Lyell's noble views on 'the modern changes of the earth, as illustrative of geology;' but we now very seldom hear the action, for instance, of the coast-waves, called a trifling and insignificant cause, when applied to the excavation of gigantic valleys or to the formation of the longest lines of inland cliffs.
They lie either scattered and single, in which case they are never hatched, and are called by the Spaniards huachos; or they are collected together into a shallow excavation, which forms the nest.
He hurled the umbrella wrathfully into an excavation.
An excavation was made in the hard earth, at a great expense of toil and time, and the body was wrapped in such spare vestments as could be collected among the labourers.