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one who carries out the will or plan of another person or of a group. In governmentgovernment,
system of social control under which the right to make laws, and the right to enforce them, is vested in a particular group in society. There are many classifications of government.
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, the term refers not only to the chief administrative officer but to all others who execute the laws and to them as a group. In modern government, the executive also formulates and carries out governmental policies, directs relations with foreign governments, commands the armed forces, approves or disapproves legislative acts, recommends legislation, and in some countries summons and opens the legislature, appoints and dismisses some executive officials, and pardons any but those impeached. Usually the executive may also issue ordinances, often supplementing legislative acts, and may interpret statutes for the guidance of officials. These broad powers depend upon the theory that the state has a juristic personality whose will the government, in its various departments, must perform. The separation of the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government was not only modified in the U.S. ConstitutionConstitution of the United States,
document embodying the fundamental principles upon which the American republic is conducted. Drawn up at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, the Constitution was signed on Sept.
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 but has been further modified in practice, for the President performs many judicial and legislative functions. State and municipal executives have likewise assumed larger powers. Distinction is sometimes made between executives who decide policies and the administration that carries out the laws and executive orders. In business, executives are those who manage, decide policies, and control the business.


See C. A. Beard, American Government and Politics (1931); H. J. Laski, The American Presidency (1940, repr. 1972); J. M. Burns, Presidential Government (1965); D. B. James, The Contemporary Presidency (1970); L. Crovitz and J. A. Rabkin, ed., The Fettered Presidency: Legal Constraints on the Executive Branch (1989).


a. the branch of government responsible for carrying out laws, decrees, etc.; administration
b. any administration


(operating system)
The command interpreter or shell for an operating system. The term is used especially around mainframes and probably derived from UNIVAC's archaic EXEC 2 and current (in 2000) EXEC 8 operating systems.


(1) See operating system and kernel.

(2) A high-ranking officer in a company. See CEO, CTO and CIO.
References in periodicals archive ?
Typically, a company will simply add the Black-Scholes value of any options and restricted stock to the value of any cash compensation provided by their peers, and provide the same total value to their own executives.
Many executives also expressed difficulty finding and retaining talented people to become lease administrators.
The programs are customized for executives in business and public practice.
A recent poll conducted by Cejka Search in partnership with the American College of Physician Executives (ACPE) reveals significant challenges for physician executives who seek to transition among health care sectors--for example, moving from a management position in a hospital to a health benefits organization or from a health benefits organization to a group practice, for example.
The dramatic increase in the number of people with critical decision-making responsibilities is one reason that companies with more skilled executives outperform their competitors.
ITAM in Mexico recently developed a customized management development program for Mexican and Central American executives of a global multinational.
Custom programs, which can run as high as $400,000 per program, are currently more popular than open-enrollment programs, which group together executives from various companies, industries and countries.
When executives can voluntarily defer compensation during the plan year, the Service will examine whether such executives could determine the actual amount deferred and make the deferral, and whether they are in violation of the constructive receipt doctrine.
The book contains a list of 10 commandments that pertain to the personal and professional conduct of executives along with a number of ways to minimize personal civil liability, including those areas of prime potential for lawsuits.
CIOs are one of the few groups of executives who have a real 'helicopter' view of the enterprise, and their executive colleagues are now realizing how valuable that is.

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