Experimental Field

Experimental Field

 

(also study plot or sample plot). (1) A permanent plot of land used for field experiments.

(2) An agricultural experimental institution that conducts field experiments to develop efficient methods of raising agricultural crops in a region, taking into consideration local natural and economic conditions. Unlike scientific research institutes and agricultural testing stations, experimental fields do not work on theoretical problems of land cultivation.

In prerevolutionary Russia, experimental fields were the first scientific research institutions in agriculture. They played a major role in the development of scientifically sound land cultivation. The first experimental field was established in 1840 at the Gory-Goretsk Agricultural School. In 1881 an experimental field was established at the Novo-Aleksandriia Agricultural Institute.

Between 1865 and 1867, D. I. Mendeleev established experimental fields at his estate, Boblovo, in Moscow Province. At his initiative, the Free Economic Society organized a number of fields to conduct experiments with fertilizers and soil tillage in Poltava (1884), Kherson (1889), Don (1894), Lokhvitsa (1894), Odessa (1894), and Taganrog (1894). Experimental fields grew in number after the disastrous harvest and famine of 1891, when the necessity of managing agriculture on scientific principles became obvious. In 1913 there were 77 experimental fields. They constituted the most widespread type of experimental institution at that time.

After the Great October Socialist Revolution a more advanced network of agricultural institutions developed rapidly. These institutions included institutes (222 in 1974) and their branches (39) and experimental stations (432). After having played a vital role in the development of the agricultural sciences, experimental fields became less important, and their numbers started diminishing (32 in 1974). Experimental stations and, in some cases, institutes were organized to replace many of the old experimental fields. The experimental fields that have been preserved are branches of the institutes. As permanent testing plots providing typical conditions for raising a particular crop, they are used to verify and expand on the results of research at the institute.

In place of the experimental fields, scientific research institutes and experimental stations have developed a network of testing sites, which numbered 233 in 1974. The sites, which are small subdivisions of scientific research establishments, are located in the fields and on the livestock farms of sovkhozes and kolkhozes. They test the research results of their institutes or experimental stations under local conditions and then introduce the new crop or technique into production.

N. I. VOLODARSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Rigorous sampling of the soil of experimental field was carried out to check the fertility and salinity status of the field.
The disrespect of international law and the absence of enforcement mechanisms made our region an experimental field for the power seekers' adventures.
The field was well leveled and it was prepared by applying of 02 dry plow, When field came in suitable conditions after the soaking dose then crosswise cultivator was used and soil plowed followed by the tillage implement rotavator, thus a well seed bed prepared of the experimental field.
The soil of experimental field was loamy sand in texture, having low in organic carbon (0.
5 cm in a 3 m long plot at the experimental field of the Field Crops Department.
Degradation studies were carried out in the experimental field in Shihezi, Kuitun, and Bole of Xinjiang Province.
The work was carried out in citrus experimental field of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia (12[degrees]40'39 "S, 39[degrees]06'23"W, 225m asl), between July 2010 and December 2012.
To initiate the project, the LWC held an experimental field workshop, which was attended by several local pest control advisors and viticulturists.
Prior to sowing, experimental field was disc ploughed and cultivated twice followed by planking with tractor for preparation of fine seed bed.
The K1 was unveiled at the Paris Air Show this month, and a prototype has already had a successful operational test in recent weeks at the military experimental field in the south.
The 3D model printing of patients' hearts has become more common in recent years as part of an emerging, experimental field devoted to enhanced visualization of individual cardiac structures and characteristics.
It is an experimental field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the assessment and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders.

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