Factor Theory

Factor Theory

 

a term traditionally applied to any sociological theory that attempts to attribute changes in a society to the influence of some phenomenon regarded as the sole factor determining the changes.

The history of social thought contains many examples of this type of explanation for the mechanism of development of a society. Thus, attempts have been made at theories based, for example, on geographic, demographic, psychological, and, in the late 19th century, technological determinism. Every such attempt, however, led to what G. V. Plekhanov called a vicious circle of interaction: the phenomenon used as a factor was a consequence of some other factor or factors before it became a cause (see On the Question of the Development of the Monistic View of History, ch. 2).

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a number of bourgeois sociologists, such as M. Weber and M. M. Kovalevskii, improperly portrayed Marxism as a single-factor theory based on economic determinism. In place of Marxism, as they saw it, these sociologists offered various multiple-factor theories, according to which the development of a society is determined by the simultaneous action of, for example, economic, demographic, religious, and psychological factors. Such a position leads to eclecticism and the mechanical joining of various factors.

K. Marx, F. Engels, and V. I. Lenin rejected the branding of Marxism as economic determinism. In their view, to represent Marxism in this way is to vulgarize it. Marxism regards society as a developing system and describes the entire process “in its totality (and therefore, too, the reciprocal action of its various sides on one another)” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, p. 37). In this process of development the mode of production plays a decisive role.

References in periodicals archive ?
These theories include Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's two factor theory, McClelland's need for achievement theory and Alfred's E.
Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1969) Two Factor Theory focused on factors that employees find satisfying or dissatisfying in their workplaces.
Agglomeration Factor Theory and the Growth of the Internet of Things Industrial Cluster
Multiple theories have been proposed for its development, including the hydrogen peroxide theory, the cytotoxic metabolites theory, the neural theory, the growth factor theory, and the melanocytorrhagy theory.
Determinants of business student satisfaction and retention in higher education: Applying Herzberg's two factor theory.
The study also aimed to highlight the motivating factors for the teachers and implication of Maslow's need hierarchy and Herzberg's two factor theory on teachers at higher education level in Pakistan.
As we noted, our results may be explained within the context of the Five Factor Theory of Personality (McCrae & Costa, 1999, 2008), with the basic tendency of conscientiousness influencing a common characteristic adaptation to task engagement, namely avoidance.
The objective is to initiate re- conceptualization of the differences between union loyalty and union commitment by revisiting Gordon's Four Factor Theory of Commitment and Hirschman's Exit--Voice Loyalty Theory.
In addition, an analysis based on the Array Factor Theory is introduced, to see if this analysis can predict (or not) RCS reduction in the presence of coupling phenomena.
The book applied Adjibolosoo's human factor theory to leadership principles, stressing the importance of caring, ethical leaders in efforts to bring about positive change.
Herzberg Dual Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction And Motivation: A Review of The Evidence And A Criticism.