Fakhr Al-Din II

Fakhr Al-Din II

 

Born circa 1572; died Apr. 13, 1635, in Istanbul. Ruler (emir) of Lebanon from 1590 to 1613 and from 1618 to 1633; member of the Maan dynasty.

Fakhr al-Din united Lebanon and parts of Syria and Palestine under his rule. He encouraged trade and handicrafts. In the early 17th century, in an attempt to break away from Turkish domination, he established relations with Tuscany, the papal court, and Spain. Forced to seek refuge in Italy in 1613, he returned to power in 1618. Fakhr al-Din was captured in 1633 by Ottoman troops that had invaded Lebanon; he was later executed by the Turkish rulers.

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The fierce battles that were waged by the Ottoman army in the 17th century to defeat Lebanon's Fakhr al-Din II resulted in the destruction of the upper portions of the castle.