Falange

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Related to Falangist: Falange Española

Falange

(fälän`hā) [Span.,=phalanx], Spanish political party, founded in 1933 as Falange Española by José António Primo de Rivera, son of the former Spanish dictator. Professing generally the principles of fascismfascism
, totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. The name was first used by the party started by Benito Mussolini, who ruled Italy from 1922 until the Italian defeat in World
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, the Falange distinguished itself from other fascist groups by its great emphasis on national tradition, particularly the imperial and Renaissance Christian traditions of Spain. The Falange militia joined the Insurgents in the Spanish civil war of 1936–39. Merged with the Carlist militia by Francisco FrancoFranco, Francisco
, 1892–1975, Spanish general and caudillo [leader]. He became a general at the age of 32 after commanding the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco.
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 in 1937, the organization was renamed Falange Española Tradicionalista and was made the official party of the Nationalist state. It was a much less independent force than Italian fascism, however, and was exploited and manipulated by Franco. From the middle of World War II on, the party grew steadily weaker, and Franco sought to make it a kind of bureaucratic nationalist front. By the early 1970s it had virtually no influence.

Bibliography

See study by S. G. Payne (1961).

References in periodicals archive ?
Madrid resident Kanter finds "the quotes from the Falangist handbook to be the most interesting part of the book" (Interview).
Despite widespread pro-German sentiments in the Falange and Franco government, Falangist newspapers covered the one-sided conflict with remarkable objectivity, notwithstanding Polish complaints that the Spanish press did not always reprint the declarations of the Warsaw cabinet.
At the insistence of Mussolini, four Italian divisions launched the Falangist offensive.
Opinions such as those of a young archaeologist, Carlos Alonso del Real, of pro-German falangist ideology -- it is important to distinguish between a pro-Italian and a pro-German faction in the Spanish Falange -- were not usual.
A manifesto that appeared in the newly created Falangist film journal Primer Plano makes explicit the connection between the aggressive masculinity represented in these films and Spanishness: "Not a metre more .
Payne believes is "probably the most significant regional nucleus of Falangist strength" (65).
The political and ideological instrumentation of the comic strip had already been tested in Spain during the Civil War by tebeos such as the Falangist Flechas or the Carlist Pelayos, which could not escape the politics of the partido unico and ultimately coalesced as Flechas y Pelayos (see Conde 19-20).
Instead, she became the mistress to the famed Falangist leader Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, executed by Franco in 1936 as a traitor to the Spanish Republic (SL 679; Bulit interview with the author).
One only has to think of Lebanon 2006, Lebanon 1996 (Operation Grapes of Wrath and the bombing of the UN compound at Qana) and Lebanon 1982 (17,000 dead topped off with the massacre of 800-3000 Palestinians by Israel's Falangist iron guard in the Sabra and Shatila camps) to understand that the large-scale killing of civilians is always a large part of Israel's 'military' operations.
The Division member, a former Falangist and a great cinema connoisseur, left the boxes in the archives of a well-known trade unionist.
He ran in just three states, California, Colorado, and Florida, yet still--with the support of the Christian Falangist Party--attracted almost 35,000 votes.