Falange

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Related to Falangist: Falange Española

Falange

(fälän`hā) [Span.,=phalanx], Spanish political party, founded in 1933 as Falange Española by José António Primo de Rivera, son of the former Spanish dictator. Professing generally the principles of fascismfascism
, totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. The name was first used by the party started by Benito Mussolini, who ruled Italy from 1922 until the Italian defeat in World
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, the Falange distinguished itself from other fascist groups by its great emphasis on national tradition, particularly the imperial and Renaissance Christian traditions of Spain. The Falange militia joined the Insurgents in the Spanish civil war of 1936–39. Merged with the Carlist militia by Francisco FrancoFranco, Francisco
, 1892–1975, Spanish general and caudillo [leader]. He became a general at the age of 32 after commanding the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco.
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 in 1937, the organization was renamed Falange Española Tradicionalista and was made the official party of the Nationalist state. It was a much less independent force than Italian fascism, however, and was exploited and manipulated by Franco. From the middle of World War II on, the party grew steadily weaker, and Franco sought to make it a kind of bureaucratic nationalist front. By the early 1970s it had virtually no influence.

Bibliography

See study by S. G. Payne (1961).

References in periodicals archive ?
Later, a group of uniformed Falangists entered, saluting the portrait of General Franco that hung on the wall.
There are images of the Nazi representatives, fascist Italians and Spanish Falangists, preceded by a subtitle announcing that the Portuguese people received them at the rally with "inexcedivel carinho" (unexcelled kindness), to which they responded by cheering the Estado Novo.
Israel, which since 1948 realized thousands of Palestinians in Shabra and Shatila, killing is 16 years"--an apparent act of propaganda, lying about the massacres in the refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila in 1982 in Lebanon, which were not carried out by Israel but by the Maronite Christian Falangist militia.
In turn Ubico benefited from Falangist propaganda that buttressed his arbitrary rule.
While Hitler and Mussolini bombed the republic on behalf of the 'rebel' fascist forces under General Franco who upheld the Falangist banner of 'Family, Church and Civilization' -- a fascist prototype for Obama's 'humanitarian intervention' on behalf of his 'rebels'.
This was the only occasion when the liberal American press applauded the State Department's policy toward Spain, for abandoning "appeasement" in favour of a "firm" or "tough" action against Falangist Spain".
In contrast, political pilgrimages from Spain to the Third Reich were a very specific type of sojourn, motivated by Falangist political affinity for Nazi Germany.
When the book was published in 1957, most reviewers agreed that Wright's use of the Falangist handbook for young women was a brilliant means of exposing the great gap between what Wright refers to as "the official Spain and the human Spain" (66).
Not that Montalban's own politics were so confident as he turned to thriller writing--following his own jail time for anti-Franco activities and the denouement that followed the Falangist nightmare.
Writing in the age of the Nazi, Fascist, and Falangist State, Walter Benjamin famously argued that a critical left perspective involves excavating possible moments of alternative trajectories in history.
Adalgisa, who is nearing forty, means well but is warped and distorted in her moral and ethical sense by Spanish Catholicism, mixed with the pro-Franco Falangist sympathies (she is of Spanish ancestry) that are being promulgated by her confessor.
All recent studies of cultural developments during the Civil War concentrate first on the response of artists and intellectuals to the siege of Madrid, with its crisis-point in November 1936 and the emergence of theatre groups such as Nueva Escena, the theatre section of the Alianza de Intelectuales Antifascistas, in the early months of the war, and then on the series of developments in the second half of 1937, which in most accounts centre on the Teatro de Arte y Propaganda, directed by Maria Teresa Leon, with the Falangist sympathizer Felipe Lluch as her semi-hidden assistant.