Falange

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Related to Falangists: Falange Española

Falange

(fälän`hā) [Span.,=phalanx], Spanish political party, founded in 1933 as Falange Española by José António Primo de Rivera, son of the former Spanish dictator. Professing generally the principles of fascismfascism
, totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. The name was first used by the party started by Benito Mussolini, who ruled Italy from 1922 until the Italian defeat in World
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, the Falange distinguished itself from other fascist groups by its great emphasis on national tradition, particularly the imperial and Renaissance Christian traditions of Spain. The Falange militia joined the Insurgents in the Spanish civil war of 1936–39. Merged with the Carlist militia by Francisco FrancoFranco, Francisco
, 1892–1975, Spanish general and caudillo [leader]. He became a general at the age of 32 after commanding the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco.
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 in 1937, the organization was renamed Falange Española Tradicionalista and was made the official party of the Nationalist state. It was a much less independent force than Italian fascism, however, and was exploited and manipulated by Franco. From the middle of World War II on, the party grew steadily weaker, and Franco sought to make it a kind of bureaucratic nationalist front. By the early 1970s it had virtually no influence.

Bibliography

See study by S. G. Payne (1961).

References in periodicals archive ?
They found the capital under siege by the Falangist "Army of Africa"--mostly Foreign Legionaries and Moors, superbly equipped by Italy and Germany.
At the insistence of Mussolini, four Italian divisions launched the Falangist offensive.
From the barbershop the Falangists take her back to her father's office in the city hall, where she is repeatedly raped: "it was there that the bad things were done" (353).
When Talens moves away from direct allusions to the political circumstances of the civil war and leaves behind the demonization of falangists and the canonization of leftists and anarchists, he becomes a consummate story-teller.
The poem reflects on Spain, where Al-Bayati lives, and connects Hemingway in the first line with "Death in Madrid" and later in the stanza with the Spanish Civil War and Federico Garcia Lorca by the Falangists in 1936.
The then charge d'affaires of the Iranian Embassy in Beirut Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, military attache Ahmad Motevaselian, embassy technician Taqi Rastegar Moghadam and journalist of the Islamic republic news agency Kazzem Akhavan were kidnapped by the Lebanese mercenary army - also known as the Falangists - at gunpoint in Northern Lebanon in 1982 and were later handed over to the Israeli army.
The charge d'affaires of the Iranian Embassy in Beirut, Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, military attache Ahmad Motevaselian, embassy technician Taghi Rastegar Moghadam and journalist of the Islamic republic news agency Kazzem Akhavan were kidnapped by the Lebanese mercenary army - also known as the Falangists - at a gunpoint in northern Lebanon in 1982 and were later handed over to Israeli army.
Seyed Mohsen Moussavi, then charge d'affaires of the Iranian Embassy in Beirut, military attache Ahmad Motevaselian, embassy technician Taghi Rastegar Moghadam and journalist of the Islamic republic news agency Kazzem Akhavan were kidnapped by the Lebanese mercenary army - also known as the Falangists - at a gunpoint in northern Lebanon in 1982 and were later handed over to Israeli army.
2) Franco and other Falangist leaders made occasional negative characterizations of Jews, typically conflating them with the Soviet Union through such references as "Judeo-Bolshevism" or "Judeo-Marxism," but the primary enemies of the Falange, the Spanish government, and the Catholic Church remained communism, liberal democracy, separatism, and capitalism.
Despite widespread pro-German sentiments in the Falange and Franco government, Falangist newspapers covered the one-sided conflict with remarkable objectivity, notwithstanding Polish complaints that the Spanish press did not always reprint the declarations of the Warsaw cabinet.
Payne believes is "probably the most significant regional nucleus of Falangist strength" (65).