Falange

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Related to Falangists: Falange Española

Falange

(fälän`hā) [Span.,=phalanx], Spanish political party, founded in 1933 as Falange Española by José António Primo de Rivera, son of the former Spanish dictator. Professing generally the principles of fascismfascism
, totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. The name was first used by the party started by Benito Mussolini, who ruled Italy from 1922 until the Italian defeat in World
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, the Falange distinguished itself from other fascist groups by its great emphasis on national tradition, particularly the imperial and Renaissance Christian traditions of Spain. The Falange militia joined the Insurgents in the Spanish civil war of 1936–39. Merged with the Carlist militia by Francisco FrancoFranco, Francisco
, 1892–1975, Spanish general and caudillo [leader]. He became a general at the age of 32 after commanding the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco.
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 in 1937, the organization was renamed Falange Española Tradicionalista and was made the official party of the Nationalist state. It was a much less independent force than Italian fascism, however, and was exploited and manipulated by Franco. From the middle of World War II on, the party grew steadily weaker, and Franco sought to make it a kind of bureaucratic nationalist front. By the early 1970s it had virtually no influence.

Bibliography

See study by S. G. Payne (1961).

References in periodicals archive ?
A Falangist newspaper, Unidad, published a complimentary critique of the film, which stressed its technical and artistic perfection as well as its pedagogical value for the Spanish public:
Falangists subtly attempted to gain political ascendancy by modeling themselves and their party's political institutions on those of Hitler's Germany.
While Arne was winning Olympic Bronze in Berlin, both the Falangists and Republicans were begging foreign powers to intervene on their behalf.
More or less sympathetic treatments of the Spanish Falangists, Italian Fascists and German Nazis are still commonplace.
Like Spanish Falangists chanting "Vive la Morte", our young are being brainwashed to feel unreasonable fear, especially fear of death, and to seek pleasure and avoid pain at all times and at all costs.
Later on the Falangists, the mainstay of Franco's support, ran a campaign against Escriva, who by then had moved away from Spain.
In fact, he was director general of sports, parliamentary leader of Franco's Falangists and served as the dictator's ambassador to the Soviet Union.
For example, while at first the radical rhetoric of the Falangists overshadowed that of more conservative elements, all were committed to heavy state intervention in the economy.
In this short but substantive book, he examines his life in relation to those of the three great, gay Latino writers who inspired him: Manuel Puig, the Argentine novelist whose militant effeminacy made him persona non grata in his homeland; Reinaldo Arenas, the Cuban exile haunted until his death by the persecution he'd endured under Castro's regime; and Federico Garcia Lorca, the Spanish poet and dramatist murdered by Franco's Falangists.
Attacked by an alliance of Franco's Falangists, Hitler's Condor Legion and Mussolini's Blackshirt divisions, the wonder is that the Republic held out for three years.
His father, an exaggeratedly virile figure, had rejected the monarchism of his aristocratic family and joined the Falangists.
He returned and was reelected rector of the university in 1931 but was removed once again when, in October 1936, he denounced Francisco Franco's Falangists.