Family of Languages

Family of Languages


a group of languages that are later forms of a single language; a group of languages originating from a single language. Examples include the Indo-European and Uralic language families.

The term “family of languages” has traditionally been used only in reference to isolated groups of cognate languages and not in reference to branches of language families; for example, the Slavic languages are not called a family of languages because they are a branch of the Indo-European family. This use of the term is inconvenient since it is sometimes questionable whether many families of languages can be isolated. In addition, the essence of the relationship of languages grouped as a family, as in the case of the Indo-European family, does not depend on whether a protolanguage is known. Therefore, many linguists more frequently use the term “family of languages” in a broader sense, speaking, for instance, of the Bantu family of languages, which itself belongs to the Niger-Congo family of languages.

Some specialists on the languages of America, Oceania, and other areas have introduced a system of terms to refer to language families at different stages of removal from the protolanguage: “family,” “stock,” “phylum,” “macrophylum,” and so on. Corresponding Russian terms include “microfamily” (mikrosem’ia), or “group” (gruppa); “family” (sem’ia); and “macrofamily” (makrosem’ia)—as in “Slavic microfamily,” “Indo-European family,” and “Nostratic macrofamily.”


References in periodicals archive ?
Other linguists and I were able to collect a hundred or so words which suggested that this language belongs to Indo-Aryan sub family of languages.
Kurux belongs to the Dravidian family of languages, say Kobayashi and Tirkey, and forms a close subgroup with Malto.
The initially cryptic C syntax conventions, such as increment operators (+ + ), braces ({}) and other idioms, have become standard features across a whole family of languages, including Java, JavaScript, C#, Perl, and others.
Beyond Arabic, FSI offers localized language instruction in the northern and southern Vietnamese dialects, Brazilian and Continental Portuguese, and the Serbo-Croatian family of languages, including Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian variants.
Another educated view of the ranking above can consolidate a bit the family of languages, and so the C family of languages would actually be the clear leader with C and C++ taken into account together for a total of 91 points.
This, because retention is a whole family of languages belonging to that derived in the form of an ancient family of languages is concerned.
61), the author does not seem to realize that Kadazandusun (or Kadazan Dusun), although the largest language in the state, is but one of many Dusunic languages which constitute the Dusunic family of languages, whereas the Murut languages are from the Murutic family of languages.
Turkish is a member of the Altaic family of languages.
About 98% of languages spoken in Pakistan are Indo-Iranian, a branch of Indo-European family of languages (of which approximately 75% are Indo-Aryan and 20% are pure Iranian).
Adopting a cross-linguistic and diachronic approach to studyinglinguist phenomena, scholars explore similar cross-linguisticevolution paths of verbal systems mostly within the scope of theRomance family of languages.
Pahari belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of languages which is a sub group of Indo-European languages (Masica 1991).
Robert Caldwell, another Linguist had clearly stated, 'Tulu is one of the most highly developed languages of Dravidian family of languages and has an equal place among the languages like Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu and Kannada'.

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