Family of Languages

Family of Languages

 

a group of languages that are later forms of a single language; a group of languages originating from a single language. Examples include the Indo-European and Uralic language families.

The term “family of languages” has traditionally been used only in reference to isolated groups of cognate languages and not in reference to branches of language families; for example, the Slavic languages are not called a family of languages because they are a branch of the Indo-European family. This use of the term is inconvenient since it is sometimes questionable whether many families of languages can be isolated. In addition, the essence of the relationship of languages grouped as a family, as in the case of the Indo-European family, does not depend on whether a protolanguage is known. Therefore, many linguists more frequently use the term “family of languages” in a broader sense, speaking, for instance, of the Bantu family of languages, which itself belongs to the Niger-Congo family of languages.

Some specialists on the languages of America, Oceania, and other areas have introduced a system of terms to refer to language families at different stages of removal from the protolanguage: “family,” “stock,” “phylum,” “macrophylum,” and so on. Corresponding Russian terms include “microfamily” (mikrosem’ia), or “group” (gruppa); “family” (sem’ia); and “macrofamily” (makrosem’ia)—as in “Slavic microfamily,” “Indo-European family,” and “Nostratic macrofamily.”

A. B. DOLGOPOL’SKII

References in periodicals archive ?
The language is one of four Yup'ik Eskimo languages that help make up the Eskimo portion of the Eskimo-Aleut family of languages, and is spoken in southwestern Alaska in the Yukon-Kyskokwim Delta, Bristol Bay area, and nearby regions.
Cornish is a member of the Celtic family of languages which includes Welsh and Breton.
The XML family of languages have long held out the promise of standards- based Straight Through Processing.
As Trautmann demonstrates, Ellis's contribution to scholarship has been unduly eclipsed by works such as A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages (1856) by Robert Caldwell, who was not forthcoming in acknowledging his debt.
Beyond Arabic, FSI offers localized language instruction in the northern and southern Vietnamese dialects, Brazilian and Continental Portuguese, and the Serbo-Croatian family of languages, including Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian variants.
This, because retention is a whole family of languages belonging to that derived in the form of an ancient family of languages is concerned.
Adopting a cross-linguistic and diachronic approach to studyinglinguist phenomena, scholars explore similar cross-linguisticevolution paths of verbal systems mostly within the scope of theRomance family of languages.
Robert Caldwell, another Linguist had clearly stated, 'Tulu is one of the most highly developed languages of Dravidian family of languages and has an equal place among the languages like Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu and Kannada'.
Howard was renowned for his firsthand knowledge of Maranao, one of the Danao Family of languages of Mindanao that is closely related to Sabah Iranun.
Belonging to the Dravidian family of languages, Tulu was highly praised by the Victorian linguists such as Robert Caldwell (1856) who said: "Tulu is one of the most developed languages of the Dravidian family.
French is a Romance language which belongs to the Italic branch of the Indo-European family of languages, a family which groups together about a thousand languages, spoken by approximately three million individuals (Crystal, 2007:).

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