Federal Bureau of Investigation


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to Federal Bureau of Investigation: Federal Bureau of Prisons, Drug Enforcement Agency

Federal Bureau of Investigation

(FBI), division of the U.S. Dept. of JusticeJustice, United States Department of,
federal executive department established in 1870 and charged with providing the means for enforcing federal laws, furnishing legal counsel in federal cases, and construing the laws under which other federal executive departments act.
..... Click the link for more information.
 charged with investigating all violations of federal laws except those assigned to some other federal agency. The FBI has jurisdiction over some 185 investigative matters, among them espionage, sabotage, and other subversive activities; kidnapping; extortion; bank robbery; interstate transportation of stolen property; civil-rights matters; interstate gambling violations; and fraud against the government. Created (1908) as the Bureau of Investigation, it originally conducted investigations only for the Justice Dept. After J. Edgar HooverHoover, J. Edgar
(John Edgar Hoover), 1895–1972, American administrator, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), b. Washington, D.C. Shortly after he was admitted to the bar, he entered (1917) the Dept.
..... Click the link for more information.
 became (1924) director of the Bureau of Investigation, Congress gradually added one duty after another to the jurisdiction of the bureau and reorganized (1933) it with wider powers as the Division of Investigation in the Dept. of Justice. In 1935 it was designated the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The FBI played an important role in raising the standards of local police units through its FBI Academy. Under Hoover's direction, it battled against such roving outlaws as John DillingerDillinger, John
, 1902–34, American bank robber, probably b. Indianapolis. Paroled after serving a prison term for attempted robbery, Dillinger organized a gang and terrorized the Midwest in 1933.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and "Pretty Boy" Floyd as well as against the organized crime of the prohibitionprohibition,
legal prevention of the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages, the extreme of the regulatory liquor laws. The modern movement for prohibition had its main growth in the United States and developed largely as a result of the agitation of
..... Click the link for more information.
 era. From World War I on, the agency also was active in intelligence work, investigating anarchists such as Emma GoldmanGoldman, Emma,
1869–1940, American anarchist, b. Lithuania. She emigrated to Rochester, N.Y., in 1886 and worked there in clothing factories. After 1889 she was active in the anarchist movement, and her speeches attracted attention throughout the United States.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and other political radicals, socialists, and Communists, Nazi saboteurs, and terrorists such as Osama bin Ladenbin Laden, Osama or Usama
, 1957?–2011, Saudi-born leader of Al Qaeda, a terrorist organization devoted to uniting all Muslims and establishing a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

During Hoover's final years as director (he served until his death in 1972), the bureau became highly controversial and was the frequent target of attack from a wide variety of liberal groups. During the Watergate affairWatergate affair,
in U.S. history, series of scandals involving the administration of President Richard M. Nixon; more specifically, the burglarizing of the Democratic party national headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C.
..... Click the link for more information.
 it was revealed that the FBI had yielded to pressure from top White House officials, acting on behalf of President Richard M. Nixon, to halt their investigation of the Watergate break-in. The FBI subsequently cooperated with the White House "inquiry" into the break-in, which was actually attempting a cover-up, and FBI Acting Director L. Patrick Gray destroyed files belonging to one of the convicted Watergate conspirators, E. Howard Hunt. Gray resigned (Apr., 1973) after his role became public. In June, 1973, Clarence M. Kelley was named director. He was followed by William H. Webster (1978–87), William S. Sessions (1987–93), Louis J. Freeh (1993–2001), and Robert S. Mueller 3d (2001–).

Bibliography

See H. A. Overstreet, The FBI in Our Open Society (1969); W. W. Turner, Hoover's FBI (1970); R. O. Wright, ed., Whose FBI? (1974); J. T. Elliff, The Reform of the FBI Intelligence Activities (1979); F. M. Sorrentino, Ideological Warfare: The F.B.I.'s Path toward Power (1985); B. Burrough, Public Enemies: America's Greatest Crime Wave and the Birth of the FBI: 1933–34 (2004); T. Weiner, Enemies: A History of the F.B.I. (2012).

References in periodicals archive ?
Federal Bureau of Investigation 1972; Federal Bureau of Investigation April 2003; Whitehead 1956).
Alpert, Supervisory Special Agent, Critical Incident Response Group, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA
FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION Budget: $3 billion ($500 million for intelligence).
Wilson, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1 August 1939, 16, file "144- 32-2," box 17587, Classified Subject Files--Correspondence, Central Files and Related Records, 1904-1967, General Records of the Department of Justice, Record Group 60, National Archives (hereafter cited as Classified Subject Files, RG 60); Ernesto Garlarza, The Louisiana Sugar Cane Plantation Workers vs.
Attorney, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Internal Revenue Service, on matters relating to BCCI.
Diplomats said agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation were allowed to interrogate Kasab for nine hours during which they had established that he was a Pakistan national.
Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, In the Line of Fire (Washington, DC, 1997); and interviews by author of National Academy students, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA, 1995 through 1999.
A $170 million computer overhaul intended to give Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents and analysts an instantaneous, paperless way to exchange information about criminal cases and terrorism threats is going back to the drawing board and may cost U.
Before leaving the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1975, Rico had been one of the driving forces behind the FBI's mob informant program, which has mired the bureau's Boston office in scandal for several years.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Institute of Health (NIH) chose e/pop for its extensive set of security options, centralized administration capabilities and ability to instantly send customized, high priority messages.
A collaboration of NIST, the National Institute of Justice, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Defense Cyber Crime Center, other federal, state and local law enforcement, and software vendors, the NSRL is an example of the application of technology to investigate crimes involving computers, such as child pornography, racketeering, cyber-attacks, illegal gambling, Internet fraud, and software piracy.
Green and DOI staff, with the assistance of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, is continuing.

Full browser ?