Ferdinand I


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Ferdinand I,

1503–64, Holy Roman emperor (1558–64), king of Bohemia (1526–64) and of Hungary (1526–64), younger brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VCharles V,
1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
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. Brought up in Spain, he was expected to succeed his grandfather, Ferdinand II of Aragón, who, instead, made Charles his heir. In 1521, Charles gave him the Austrian duchies of the Hapsburgs. In the same year Ferdinand married Anna, daughter of Uladislaus IIUladislaus II
, Hung. Ulászló II, c.1456–1516, king of Hungary (1490–1516) and, as Ladislaus II, king of Bohemia (1471–1516); son of Casimir IV of Poland.
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, king of Hungary and Bohemia, in fulfillment of a treaty (1515) between his grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Uladislaus II. When Anna's brother Louis II, who succeeded to the thrones of Bohemia and Hungary on his father's death (1516), was killed at the battle of Mohacs (1526), Ferdinand claimed the succession. He was elected king of Bohemia, but in Hungary he met the rival claim of John IJohn I
(John Zapolya) , 1487–1540, king of Hungary (1526–40), voivode [governor] of Transylvania (1511–26). He was born John Zapolya, the son of Stephen Zápolya.
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 (John Zapolya), supported by Sultan Sulayman ISulayman I
or Sulayman the Magnificent,
1494–1566, Ottoman sultan (1520–66), son and successor of Selim I. He is known as Sulayman II when considered as a successor of King Solomon of the Bible and Qur'an.
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. John's claims were inherited by his son John Sigismund (king as John IIJohn II
(John Sigismund Zapolya), 1540–71, king of Hungary and prince of Transylvania, son of John I. Through his mother, Isabel (daughter of Sigismund I of Poland), he was related to the Jagiello dynasty.
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). The sporadic warfare in Hungary was indecisive, except that Ferdinand had to pay tribute to the sultan for the strip of NW Hungary that he was allowed to keep with the royal title. In Bohemia, Ferdinand laid the groundwork for Hapsburg absolutism by virtually abrogating (1547) the prerogatives of the diet and the towns; he also began the reconversion of the kingdom to Catholicism by calling in the Jesuits. In Germany, Ferdinand increasingly acted as agent of Charles V, who in 1531 had him elected king of the Romans, which insured Ferdinand's succession as Holy Roman emperor. He had to deal with the Peasants' WarPeasants' War,
1524–26, rising of the German peasants and the poorer classes of the towns, particularly in Franconia, Swabia, and Thuringia. It was the climax of a series of local revolts that dated from the 15th cent.
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 and with the rebellions stirred up by Ulrich I, dispossessed duke of WürttembergWürttemberg
, former state, SW Germany. Württemberg was formerly also spelled Würtemberg and Wirtemberg. The former state bordered on Baden in the northwest, west, and southwest, on Hohenzollern and Switzerland (from which it was separated by Lake Constance) in
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, where Ferdinand was unpopular as governor. Ulrich secured the aid of Philip of HessePhilip of Hesse
, 1504–67, German nobleman, landgrave of Hesse (1509–67), champion of the Reformation. He is also called Philip the Magnanimous. Declared of age in 1518, he helped suppress the Peasants' War.
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 and defeated Ferdinand at Lauffen (1534). Ferdinand was obliged to restore the duchy to Ulrich. In the war against the Protestant Schmalkaldic LeagueSchmalkaldic League
, alliance formed in 1531 at Schmalkalden by Protestant princes and delegates of free cities. It was created in response to the threat (1530) by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to stamp out Lutheranism.
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 (1546–47), Ferdinand was an important figure. Though a devout Catholic, Ferdinand was less committed against the Reformation than Charles V. When Charles's triumph against the league was turned to defeat by the betrayal of Maurice, elector of Saxony, Ferdinand acted as mediator in making the Treaty of Passau (1552), and in 1555 he negotiated a religious truce at Augsburg (see Augsburg, Peace ofAugsburg, Peace of,
1555, temporary settlement within the Holy Roman Empire of the religious conflict arising from the Reformation. Each prince was to determine whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was to prevail in his lands (cuius regio, eius religio).
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). Charles had practically surrendered the government of the empire to Ferdinand by 1556, although formal abdication was not complete until 1558. At the end of his reign, Ferdinand still hoped that the reconvened Council of Trent would bring about a union of the churches. He was succeeded by his son, Maximilian IIMaximilian II,
1527–76, Holy Roman emperor (1564–76), king of Bohemia (1562–76) and of Hungary (1563–76), son and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I.
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, who had been crowned king of Bohemia (1562) and king of Hungary (1563) and had been elected king of the Romans (1562) before Ferdinand's death.

Ferdinand I,

1379?–1416, king of Aragón and Sicily and count of Barcelona (1412–16), second son of John I of Castile; nephew and successor of Martin of Aragón. In 1406, Ferdinand became regent of Castile during the minority of his nephew, John II. He captured (1410) Antequera from the Moors and claimed the vacant throne of Aragón in the same year. Finally chosen king in 1412, he defeated (1413) his chief rival for the throne and suppressed revolts in Sicily and Sardinia. In 1415 he met Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund at Perpignan and was obliged to agree to the deposition of Antipope Benedict XIII (see Luna, Pedro deLuna, Pedro de
, 1328?–1423?, Aragonese churchman, antipope (1394–1417) with the name Benedict XIII. He was a doctor of canon law and as cardinal (1375) became an outstanding member of the Curia Romana.
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). Ferdinand was succeeded by his son, Alfonso V.

Ferdinand I

or

Ferrante

(fār-rän`tā), 1423–94, king of Naples (1458–94), illegitimate son and successor (in Naples) of Alfonso VAlfonso V
(Alfonso the Magnanimous), 1396–1458, king of Aragón and Sicily (1416–58) and of Naples (1443–58), count of Barcelona. He was the son of Ferdinand I, whom he succeeded in Aragón and Sicily.
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 of Aragón. His succession was challenged by Pope Calixtus III, but Pope Pius II made peace with him. Ferdinand promoted commerce, industry, and education, but exercised strict royal control. The great barons, provoked by his ruthless authoritarian policies, called in (1459) John of Anjou, son of RenéRené
, 1409–80, king of Naples (1435–80; rival claimant to Alfonso V of Aragón and Ferdinand I of Naples), duke of Anjou, Bar, and Lorraine, count of Provence. He was also called René of Anjou and Good King René.
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, the rival king of Naples. The barons were defeated (1462) at Troja, and John soon departed. Another conspiracy in 1485 was crushed. Ferdinand's son Alfonso (later Alfonso II) reconquered (1481) the port of Otranto from the Turks. Ferdinand was succeeded by Alfonso II (1494–95), Ferdinand II (1495–96), and Frederick (1496–1501), none of whom was able to defend the kingdom of NaplesNaples, kingdom of,
former state, occupying the Italian peninsula south of the former Papal States. It comprised roughly the present regions of Campania, Abruzzi, Molise, Basilicata, Apulia, and Calabria. Naples was the capital.

In the 11th and 12th cent.
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 against France and Spain in the Italian WarsItalian Wars,
1494–1559, series of regional wars brought on by the efforts of the great European powers to control the small independent states of Italy. Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their
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.

Ferdinand I,

1345–83, king of Portugal (1367–83), son and successor of Peter I. His ambitions and his private life plunged the realm into disaster, although during his reign agricultural reform was achieved and Portuguese commercial power grew. Ferdinand's desire for the throne of Castile involved him in three wars with Castile. The first (1369–71) ended with Ferdinand's promise to marry Leonor, daughter of Henry IIHenry II
or Henry of Trastámara
, 1333?–1379, Spanish king of Castile and León (1369–79), illegitimate son of Alfonso XI. After taking part in several unsuccessful revolts against his half-brother, Peter the Cruel, he secured the aid of Du
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 of Castile. Instead he fell in love with a Portuguese noblewoman, Leonor Teles, and after securing a dubious annulment of her earlier marriage, made her his queen. Ferdinand then allied (1372) himself with John of GauntJohn of Gaunt
[Mid. Eng. Gaunt=Ghent, his birthplace], 1340–99, duke of Lancaster; fourth son of Edward III of England. He married (1359) Blanche, heiress of Lancaster, and through her became earl (1361) and duke (1362) of Lancaster.
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 and waged new war against Henry II, which led to a Castilian siege of Lisbon (1373) and a humiliating peace. After John I succeeded to the throne of Castile, Ferdinand, under the influence of his wife and her lover (the conde de Ourém), resumed the English alliance and engaged (1381–82) in a third humiliating war with Castile. It was concluded by the marriage of John with Ferdinand's daughter and heiress, Beatrice. Portugal would thus have gone to Castile on Ferdinand's death, but a national revolution gave the throne to Ferdinand's half-brother, John I.

Ferdinand I

or

Ferdinand the Great,

d. 1065, Spanish king of Castile (1035–65) and León (1037–65). He inherited Castile from his father, Sancho III of Navarre, conquered León, and took parts of Navarre from his brother García. Ferdinand fought successfully against the Moors and reduced to vassalage the Moorish kings of Zaragoza, Badajoz, Seville, and Toledo. At the Council of Coyanza (1050) he confirmed the laws of Alfonso V and introduced church reforms. He divided his kingdom among his sons: Castile went to Sancho II, León to Alfonso VI, and Galicia to García.

Ferdinand I,

1751–1825, king of the Two Sicilies (1816–25). He had previously been king of Naples (1759–99, 1799–1805, 1815–16) as Ferdinand IV and king of Sicily (1759–1816) as Ferdinand III. A Spanish Bourbon, Ferdinand succeeded (1759) to the two kingdoms when his father and predecessor became king of Spain as Charles IIICharles III,
1716–88, king of Spain (1759–88) and of Naples and Sicily (1735–59), son of Philip V and Elizabeth Farnese. Recognized as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1731, he relinquished the duchies to Austria after Spain reconquered (1734) Naples and Sicily in
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. His father's reforms were continued during Ferdinand's minority by the regent, Bernardo Tanucci, but after Ferdinand's marriage (1768) to Marie CarolineMarie Caroline,
1752–1814, queen of Naples, consort of Ferdinand IV (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies), daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa, and sister of Queen Marie Antoinette of France.
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 a reactionary regime was instituted under her influence. Sir John ActonActon, Sir John Francis Edward,
1736?–1811, Neapolitan statesman of British origin, b. Besançon, France. Called upon by Queen Marie Caroline and King Ferdinand IV of Naples (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies) to reform the Neapolitan army and navy in 1779, Acton
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 was appointed prime minister. The execution (1793) of the queen's sister, Marie Antoinette of France, helped turn Ferdinand against France, and in 1798 he joined the Second Coalition. In Jan., 1799, the French took Naples shortly after the royal couple had fled to Sicily. The French-sponsored Parthenopean RepublicParthenopean Republic
[from Parthenope, an ancient name of Naples], state set up in Naples in Jan., 1799, by the French Revolutionary army under General Championnet and by liberal Neapolitans after the flight of King Ferdinand IV (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies).
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 was short-lived, and terror accompanied Ferdinand's return (June, 1799). Peace was made with France in 1801, but in 1805 Ferdinand joined the Third Coalition against Napoleon. The French reconquered Naples, and early in 1806 the royal couple again fled to Sicily, where Ferdinand ruled under English protection. In 1812 he bowed to local political pressure, made his son regent, and had him grant Sicily a constitution. After Naples was restored to him (1815), Ferdinand abolished Sicilian autonomy and proclaimed (1816) himself king of the Two Sicilies. His reactionary government provoked an insurrection in 1820, and he was forced to grant a constitution. He reestablished his despotism with Austrian aid in 1821 and once again instituted a fierce persecution of all liberals and CarbonariCarbonari
[Ital.,=charcoal burners], members of a secret society that flourished in Italy, Spain, and France early in the 19th cent. Possibly derived from Freemasonry, the society originated in the kingdom of Naples in the reign of Murat (1808–15) and drew its members from
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. He was succeeded by his son Francis I.

Ferdinand I

 

(Ferdinand I of Saxe-Coburg). Born Feb. 14, 1861, in Vienna; died Sept. 9, 1948, in Coburg, Bavaria. Prince of Bulgaria from 1887 to 1908; tsar of Bulgaria from 1908 to 1918.

Ferdinand I, a son of Prince August of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, founded the Coburg dynasty in Bulgaria. During his reign, German influence grew in Bulgarian affairs. Ferdinand I was responsible for unleashing the Second Balkan War (1913) and for drawing Bulgaria into World War I in October 1915. Forced to abdicate in 1918, he fled to Germany.


Ferdinand I

 

(Ferdinand the Great). Born 1016 or 1018; died Dec. 27, 1065, in León. King of Castile from 1035; king of the combined Kingdom of Castile and León from 1037.

Ferdinand I was married to the sister of Bermudo III, king of León. After the latter’s death in 1037, he united Castile and León into a single kingdom. He later recovered extensive territory from the Moors, including Coimbra in 1064, and forced the emirs of Toledo, Badajoz, Zaragoza, and Sevilla to become his vassals. By the end of his reign he controlled a large part of the Iberian Peninsula. After his death, the kingdom of Ferdinand I was divided among his three sons and two daughters, in accordance with his will.

Ferdinand I

1. known as Ferdinand the Great. ?1016--65, king of Castile (1035--65) and Le?n (1037--65): achieved control of the Moorish kings of Saragossa, Seville, and Toledo
2. 1503--64, king of Hungary and Bohemia (1526--64); Holy Roman Emperor (1558--64), bringing years of religious warfare to an end
3. 1751--1825, king of the Two Sicilies (1816--25); king of Naples (1759--1806; 1815--25), as Ferdinand IV, being dispossessed by Napoleon (1806--15)
4. 1793--1875, king of Hungary (1830--48) and emperor of Austria (1835--48); abdicated after the Revolution of 1848 in favour of his nephew, Franz Josef I
5. 1861--1948, ruling prince of Bulgaria (1887--1908) and tsar from 1908 until his abdication in 1918
6. 1865--1927, king of Romania (1914--27); sided with the Allies in World War I