Lawrence Ferlinghetti

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Ferlinghetti, Lawrence

(fûr`lĭng-gĕt`ē), 1919–, American author and publisher, b. Yonkers, N.Y. In 1951 he moved to San Francisco and helped found the City Lights Bookshop, which became a center for writers of the beat generationbeat generation,
term applied to certain American artists and writers who were popular during the 1950s. Essentially anarchic, members of the beat generation rejected traditional social and artistic forms.
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. He has written volumes of colloquial verse such as A Coney Island of the Mind (1958), Starting from San Francisco (1967), and Open Eye, Open Heart (1974), as well as essays, broadsides, and the surrealist novel Her (1960). He encouraged and published many Beat writers, notably Allen GinsbergGinsberg, Allen
, 1926–97, American poet, b. Paterson, N.J., grad. Columbia, 1949. An outspoken member of the beat generation, Ginsberg is best known for Howl (1956), a long poem attacking American values in the 1950s.
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See N. J. Peters, ed., Ferlinghetti's Greatest Poems (2018).

Ferlinghetti, Lawrence (Monsanto) (b. Lawrence Ferling)

(1919–  ) poet, writer; born in New York City. He attended the University of North Carolina (B.A. 1941), Columbia University (M.A. 1948), and the Sorbonne (1948–51). He settled in San Francisco (1951), taught French (1951–53), and was a founder of City Lights (1952), a bookstore and publishing house. He was regarded as a founder of the Beat poetry movement, as in A Coney Island of the Mind (1958), and was also a playwright and novelist.
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Beat poets--including GREGORY CORSO, Ferlinghetti, Lawrence, Ginsberg, Allen, GARY SNYDER, and PHILIP WHALEN--sought to liberate poetry from academic preciosity and bring it "back to the streets.