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a ferroalloy consisting of 35–45 percent V, 1–3 percent Si, and 0.5–1.5 percent Al (Fe and impurities constituting the remainder). Ferrovanadium is produced in electric furnaces through the silicothermic method using the vanadium pentoxide (85–95 percent V2O5) obtained in the chemical and metallurgical treatment of iron-vanadium concentrates. It is used mainly for alloying steel. Related products include silicovanadium, which is produced in electric furnaces, and metallic vanadium and rich ferrovanadium (up to 80 percent V), which are obtained by nonfurnace aluminothermy.