Fibre Channel


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Related to Fibre Channel: Fibre Channel over Ethernet

Fibre Channel

(storage, networking, communications)
An ANSI standard originally intended for high-speed SANs connecting servers, disc arrays, and backup devices, also later adapted to form the physical layer of Gigabit Ethernet.

Development work on Fibre channel started in 1988 and it was approved by the ANSI standards committee in 1994, running at 100Mb/s. More recent innovations have seen the speed of Fibre Channel SANs increase to 10Gb/s. Several topologies are possible with Fibre Channel, the most popular being a number of devices attached to one (or two, for redundancy) central Fibre Channel switches, creating a reliable infrastructure that allows servers to share storage arrays or tape libraries.

One common use of Fibre Channel SANs is for high availability databaseq clusters where two servers are connected to one highly reliable RAID array. Should one server fail, the other server can mount the array itself and continue operations with minimal downtime and loss of data.

Other advanced features include the ability to have servers and hard drives seperated by hundreds of miles or to rapidly mirror data between servers and hard drives, perhaps in seperate geographic locations.

Fibre Channel Industry Association (FCIA).

Fibre Channel

A high-speed transport technology used to build storage area networks (SANs). Although Fibre Channel can be used as a general-purpose network carrying ATM, IP and other protocols, it has been primarily used for transporting SCSI traffic from servers to disk arrays. The Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) serializes SCSI commands into Fibre Channel frames and uses IP for in-band SNMP network management (see SNMP). For more about storage networks, see SAN.

Specifications
Using singlemode or multimode fibers, Fibre Channel can be configured point-to-point (FC-P2P), as a switched topology (FC-SW) or in an arbitrated loop (FC-AL) with or without a hub, which can connect up to 127 nodes (see below). Transmission rates up to 12.75 Gbps in each direction are supported.

Fibre Channel uses the Gigabit Ethernet physical layer and IBM's 8B/10B encoding method, where each byte is transmitted as 10 bits. Fibre Channel provides both connection-oriented and connectionless services. Following are the class and functional levels. See FCIP, FCoE, IP storage and Director-class switch.


Connection-oriented services
 Class 1    With acknowledgment, full bandwidth
 Class 4    Virtual connections, QoS,
             fractional bandwidth
 Class 6    Uni-directional

 Connectionless services
 Class 2    With acknowledgment
 Class 3    Without acknowledgment


 Node levels
 FC-4  Translation between Fibre Channel and
        command sets that use it: HiPPI, SCSI, IPI,
        SBCCS, IP, IEEE 802.2, audio, video
 FC-3  Common services across multiple ports

 Port levels (FC-PH standard)
 FC-2  Framing and flow control
 FC-1  8B/10B encoding, error detection
 FC-0  Electrical and optical characteristics



Arbitrated Loop
The arbitrated loop is widely used and can connect up to 127 nodes without using a switch. All devices share the bandwidth, and only two can communicate with each other at the same time, with each node repeating the data to its adjacent node. TX means transmit, and RX means receive.







Switch Fabric
A switch fabric is the most flexible topology, enabling all servers and storage devices to communicate with each other. It also provides for a failover architecture in the event a server or disk array ceases to operate.







Point-to-Point
This is the simplest topology connecting two Fibre Channel devices that communicate at full bandwidth.
References in periodicals archive ?
Another consideration for larger libraries is that with Fibre Channel following a point-to-point connection topology, each tape drive requires a dedicated connection to the SAN.
In addition to his position on the FCIA board of directors, Eckard is senior product manager for Fibre Channel storage networking in the SAN Business Unit at Network Appliance.
As more Fibre Channel fabric options became available adoption spread to larger customers who got better management tools and, as standards matured, improved interoperability and better support.
PMC-Sierra continues to collaborate with key industry leaders to develop 4GFC products that ensure the continued success of Fibre Channel in the enterprise storage market," said Mark Stibitz, Vice President and General Manager, Enterprise Storage Division at PMC-Sierra.
Production Fibre Channel drives typically have two separate Fibre Channel interfaces.
Eurologic's storage management and monitoring software makes it easy for system administrators to configure, monitor and tune their SANbloc 2Gb Fibre Channel systems anywhere in the world from a central location.
The most successful of the mid-range are systems that eschew the "iSCSI is for secondary storage" positioning of the large Fibre Channel vendors and offer a robust, enterprise-ready SAN solution that uses the iSCSI protocol to make storage simpler, more scalable and more easily integrated into the enterprise.
The Fibre Channel Industry Association (FCIA) is a nonprofit international organization of manufacturers, systems integrators, developers, systems vendors, industry professionals and end users.
While these arrays may not offer the same levels of scalability, throughput and reliability as Fibre Channel technology, they meet the requirements of many SMB customers and are an increasingly cost-effective alternative to direct-attached storage.
The drives cost roughly 50 percent less per gigabyte than conventional Fibre Channel drives,(1) extending the value of SANs and making them more accessible to a broader segment of the market.
Fibre Channel was designed and architected to communicate directly at extremely high speeds.
The SANmark Qualified Program is sponsored, operated, and promoted as an open industry conformance test suite development program within the Fibre Channel Industry Association (FCIA).