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(self-designation, Suomalaiset), a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense) and the indigenous population of Finland. There are more than 4.3 million Finns (1974, estimate). About 500,000 live in the USA, Canada, northern Sweden, and northern Norway and 85,000 live in the USSR (1970 census). The Finns speak Finnish. Believers are Protestants.

The earliest ancestors of the Baltic Finns were tribes of the Pit-Comb Pottery culture, who settled in southern Finland in the third millennium B.C. During the second millennium B.C., Baltic tribes of the Corded Ware and Boat-ax cultures reached Finland, adding their particular characteristics to the southwestern group of Finns; their culture shows the influence of the peoples of Scandinavia and Estonia. The culture of the eastern regions of Finland is related to that of the peoples of the Ladoga, Onega, and Upper Volga regions.

The ancestors of the Finns gradually moved northward, driving back the ancestors of the modern Lapps (Laplanders). The Finnish nationality emerged from the mingling of the tribal groups of the southwest (the Suomi), the central region (the Häme), and the east (the western group of Korela tribes). The eastern group of Korela tribes, which became part of the Novgorod Feudal Republic in the 12th century, formed a separate people, the Karelians. As feudalism was established in the 12th and 13th centuries, the Finns came under Swedish rule. From 1809 to 1917, Finland was part of the Russian empire. The development of capitalism during the second half of the 19th century facilitated the consolidation of the Finns into a nation. The Finns achieved national independence after the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia.

Prolonged Swedish domination left an imprint on Finnish culture that may be traced in agrarian relations, legal procedure, and other aspects of life. The Swedish conquest was accompanied by forced Christianization. During the Reformation, in the 16th century, the Finnish writing system was created. Instruction in primary schools was conducted in Finnish, but the Swedish language long played a major role in the government and culture. Finnish did not become the language of instruction in higher educational institutions until the mid-19th century. The traditional folk culture of the Finns has been preserved, both material (dwellings, clothing, and utensils) and spiritual (family rituals, folklore, and epic songs and runes, most notably Kalevala). For the history, economy, and culture of the Finns, see.


Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965.
Sirelius, U. T. Suomen kansanomaista kultuuria, vols. 1–3. Helsinki, 1919–21.
Talve, I. Suomalaisen kansanelämän historialliset taustatekijät. Helsinki, 1972.


References in periodicals archive ?
Mord, the vibe is much different, as it is clearly a time to unearth the many traditions that Finnish people living here can call upon to give them a small taste of their homeland.
Eino Saranen and Lester Ketola will leave tomorrow for Tampere, Finland, taking with therm seven head of Northern Minnesota deer, a gift from the Finnish people of the Arrowhead to the people of Finland.
Midsummer for the Finnish people falls in mid-June when they have almost 24-hours of daylight (as opposed to nearly 24 hours of darkness in winter).
Finnish people have always been very open, I wonder why we are now pulling off, closing up again.
The Finnish people were allowed to use their own languages, currency, post office, and even their own Diet.
The origins of the Finnish people are still a matter of conjecture, although many scholars argue that their original home was in what is now west-central Siberia.
While the story is about the locals having 'Santa for sale' and his strange elves wanting to free him, the Finnish people of the mobile phone capital of the world clearly still resent the Russians after the Second World War.
Researchers conducting the seven-year study took blood samples from 271 Finnish people aged 65 to 79 who did not have Alzheimer's or any other form of dementia at the outset.
For the seven-year study, researchers took blood samples from 271 Finnish people age 65 to 79 who did not have dementia at the start of the study.
Lonnrot collected the national epoch working together with ordinary Finnish people.
Damascus, (SANA)- President Tarja Halonen of Finland stressed on Thursday keenness to strengthen relations with Syria in the interest of both the Syrian and Finnish people.
But in the new world of the internet, it seems that the Finnish people are somewhat less easy to manipulate than they used to be and it should be stressed that the increasingly popular right-wing government party National Coalition has used language about Russia, albeit late in the day.

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