Fischer-Tropsch process

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Fischer-Tropsch process

(fĭsh`ər-trōpsh), method for the synthesis of hydrocarbons and other aliphatic compounds. Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, is reacted in the presence of an iron or cobalt catalyst; much heat is evolved, and such products as methane, synthetic gasoline and waxes, and alcohols are made, with water or carbon dioxide produced as a byproduct. An important source of the hydrogen–carbon monoxide gas mixture is the gasification of coal (see water gaswater gas,
colorless poisonous gas that burns with an intensely hot, bluish (nearly colorless) flame. The gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with very small amounts of other gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, and is almost entirely combustible as a result.
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). The process is named after F. Fischer and H. Tropsch, the German coal researchers who discovered it in 1923.

Fischer-Tropsch process

[¦fish·ər ¦trōpsh ‚präs·əs]
(chemical engineering)
A catalytic process to synthesize hydrocarbons and their oxygen derivatives by the controlled reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Fischer-Tropsch process

The synthesis of hydrocarbons and, to a lesser extent, of aliphatic oxygenated compounds by the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. The synthesis was discovered in 1923 by F. Fischer and H. Tropsch at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in Mulheim, Germany. The reaction is highly exothermic, and the reactor must be designed for adequate heat removal to control the temperature and avoid catalyst deterioration and carbon formation. The sulfur content of the synthesis gas must be extremely low to avoid poisoning the catalyst. See Coal gasification

References in periodicals archive ?
The reactor should be for operating at atmospheric pressure suitable (for oxidation, and steam reforming reactions Hydrierung-) and at higher pressures up to 50 bar (for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Sabatier reaction and methanol synthesis).
Photoinduced carbon dioxide reduction leading to the formation of energy rich fuels, such as reduction of CO2 to CH4 or higher hydrocarbons has not been adequately studied as compared with the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for hydrocarbons.
In addition to the limited refined products based on crude oil, Germany in 1944 was producing liquid refined fuel from coal, using the Bergius hydrogenation process and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process.
They cover air pollution and global warming from the use of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, biomass availability in the world, conventional ethanol production from corn and sugarcane, ethanol from biomass by fermentation, biodiesel from vegetable oils, diesel from biomass gasification followed by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis, biocrude from biomass hydrothermal liquefaction, solar wind energy for biofuel production, environmental impacts of biofuels, the economic impact of biofuels, and biofuel policy.
Although there are chemical ways to convert methane to methanol, which is easy to transport and which is suitable as a raw material for the chemical industry, "the processes commonly used up to now for producing diesel fuel - steam reforming followed by methanol synthesis or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis - are not economical," said Ferdi Schuth, Director at the Max Planck Institute for Coal Research in Mulheim an der Ruhr.
The catalyst was evaluated in terms of its Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) activity (g HC produced/g cat/min) and selectivity (the percentage of the converted CO that appears as a hydrocarbon product) in a tubular fixed-bed micro-reactor.
The second stage revolves around heavy paraffin synthesis (the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis step), where the gas is converted into liquid hydrocarbons.
Tokyo, Japan, Apr 18, 2006 - (JCN) - The Biomass Technology Research Center (BTRC) of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has succeeded in the continuous synthesis at the laboratory scale of diesel fuel from woody biomass through gasification, purification using activated carbon, and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.
The resulting gas can then be converted into liquid fuel by chemical pathways, including the well-known Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, which produces diesel.
The plant incorporates proprietary reactor designs for the autothermal reformer and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactor system.
Gaseous fuel coverage includes reviews of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol and dimethyl ether production, water-gas shift technology and natural gas hydrate conversion.
The reactor system should be suitable for the following gas phase reactions - Fischer-Tropsch synthesis,- Sabatier reaction,- Methanol synthesis,- Oxidation of alkanes small molecule (CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and olefins (C2H6, C3H6),- Hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds in the gas phase,- Steam reforming of alkanes,- The reactor should be for operating at atmospheric pressure applications (for oxidation, Hydrierung- and steam reforming reactions) and at higher pressures up to 50 bar (for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Sabatier reaction and methanol synthesis).