The mingling of the heard with the seen, and especially those "five rustic cantors wearing soiled surplices," shows the true Flaubertian
"free indirect style," a style that suppresses direct quotation in favor of a controlling discourse always more or less that of the author.
But by the end of The Awakening, the Flaubertian
realism of the novel's opening chapters is almost entirely supplanted by the voice of insistent and rather authoritarian symbolism that erupts from time to time throughout the narrative.
Thus, under the guise of an old barber, equipped with the consummate verbal skills of a master storyteller, Koumandareas is free to put to good use his uncanny Flaubertian
eye in detecting the telling details as well as the fine shades of thought and feeling that make up the inner and outer lives of his woebegone characters.
37), such later works of Flaubertian
naturalism as Glasgow's The Descendant depict attraction and repulsion as an aloof principle of physics.
These fantasy sequences hint at Greville's growing derangement (or, given the artificiality of his political world, increasing sanity), and they hint at mythic substructures underlying the action of the novel, a technique reminiscent of the beginning of Ulysses when Stephen Dedalus's thoughts keep breaking into the Flaubertian
third-person-limited point of view.
The ambiguities of this ending--En-King or St Christopher, damnation or salvation, or, at a higher level of abstraction, Hegelian Aufhebung or unresolvable dualism--are symptomatic of a novel that maintains a Flaubertian
aesthetic distance from its central character and offers no moral vantage point within the text from which to condemn Tiffauges's frequently disturbing behavior.
Julien, an artist by training and temperament; Fleur, a professor working on her English dissertation; Baba, a computer scientist extraordinaire and would-be author ("Le marquis sortit a 5H" is his book's Flaubertian
opening sentence); Fortunat, a verlan-speaking Martinican who works in various service jobs; Vlad, the sarcastic though compassionate, widely educated intellectual - these five call themselves "les Martagons" (a lovely pinkish-purple mountain lily), a nom de guerre that allows them to sign all their pranks with an ornate gothic M.
Beuve to the Marxist historian Lukacs to the psycho-biographico-engage Sartre to the thematist Victor Brombert - has given many different explanations for the Flaubertian
paradox of writing.
Antin even published "one highly-finished Flaubertian
story, `The Balanced Aquarium,' in the Kenyon Review (of all places)" (666).
In the essay in this book devoted to Madame Bovary, it emerges that what was not foreseen in the initial outlines is precisely what is most Flaubertian
in the novel.
Hawkes evinces an old-fashioned Flaubertian
dislike of the philistine in his portrayal of the merchant, ironically "with no thoughts of trade" as his corpse stands propped up with a cocoon in his open mouth (94).