Flippers


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Flippers

 

oar-shaped extremities that function as organs of locomotion and as depth and steering rudders in vertebrate animals that have secondarily transferred to aquatic living. Among reptiles, flippers are found in sea turtles, in whom they originated from the anterior and posterior extremities. Many fossil aquatic reptiles also had two pairs of flippers. Among birds, the fore-limbs of penguins were converted to flippers. Among mammals, the pinnipeds have two pairs of flippers; the cetaceans and sireni-ans, whose ancestors had two pairs of flippers, have one pair. The reduction of the posterior flippers in them was caused by the transfer of the locomotive function to the caudal section of the body.

All the skeletal elements of flippers are flattened and located in one plane. The segments of the forearm and lower limb and also of the arm and femur are as a rule greatly foreshortened. The hand and foot are elongated (usually owing to an increase in the number of phalanges). The digits in almost all animals that have flippers lack claws (except pinnipeds). An externally similar form of flippers originated independently in various animals and serves as a classic example of convergence.

References in periodicals archive ?
The 48-year-old, has been the subject of many a Facebook post after being spotted in his shorts and flippers all over Manchester.
House Flipper HQ's goal and mission is to provide solutions that are for the betterment of all involved.
The Turtle Hospital, a nonprofit organization in Marathon, Florida, amputated her rear flipper and rehabilitated the turtle before sending her back into the wild Friday.
This is a good sign for the health of the housing market because flippers using their own cash (or the cash of friends and family) are much more likely to behave more rationally and conservatively than flippers using a loan that they can walk away from without any risk of losing a place to live.
The peak period for active home flippers came in 2005 when the total was 259,192.
Experiments with robots and even humans wearing plesiosaur-like flippers only fanned the flames.
After four rounds of competitive games, the Indo-Pak Flippers, G8 Pakistan, Fresh Hub India and Pakistan Lads qualified for the last-four stage.
He continued, "The fewer foreclosure deals and longer flipping timelines that we see in the data demonstrate that flippers are getting squeezed on both sides of the profit equation.
The basic problem is that instead of developing a wholesome bond between owner and the dwelling place, the flipper diverts the atmosphere of the place.
Milwaukee is home to the Twisted Flippers Pinball League while the Appleton area has the Fox Cities Pinball League.
Many flippers go to money lenders because they can't get banks to provide such short-term, quick financing.
Dubbed "Flipperbot", the robot was designed to test how real-life organisms, such as seals, sea turtles and mudskippers use flippers and fins to move on surfaces such as sand.