Foeniculum


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Foeniculum

 

(fennel), a genus of herbaceous biennial and perennial plants of the family Umbelliferae. The stem is rounded and branched. The leaves are pinnately compound, divided into long filamentous lobes with many-rayed (up to 20) umbels of yellow flowers and with fruits measuring 4–4.5 mm long. There are two species— F. vulgare and F. italica—which occur in the Mediterranean region. The erect, branching stem reaches a height of 2 m. There is a thick spindle-shaped taproot. The dark green leaves are alternate and pinnately compound. The inflorescence is a flat compound umbel; the tiny yellow flowers are cross-pollinating. The fruit, an elongate diachene, measures up to 14 mm long and 3–4 mm across; 1,000 achenes weigh 5–6 g. Fennel requires warmth, moisture, and high-quality chernozem soils. The petioles of F. italica, which grows mainly in Italy, form thick swellings at the base.

Fennel is an essential-oil and spice plant. The achenes contain up to 6.5 percent essential oil, which consists of 40–60 percent anethole. The essential oil is used in the perfume and soap industries, in medicine, and in veterinary medicine. The fruits are used to prepare fennel water, which is used to treat meteorism. The oil cake, which contains up to 20 percent protein, is used to fatten livestock.

Fennel has been cultivated since ancient times. It is grown on small areas in many European countries, as well as in the People’s Republic of China, Japan, India, northeastern Africa, and the USA. Fennel was first cultivated in Russia in the early 20th century (as an annual crop). In 1975 fennel occupied about 1,100 hectares (ha) in the USSR (Chernovtsy and Vinnitsa oblasts, Krasnodar Krai); the average yield of achenes was 10–14 quintals per ha. Fennel is planted in wide rows spaced 60 cm apart; the seeds are sown at a rate of 8–10 kg per ha and at depths of 2.5–3 cm. Care of the plantings entails three or four cultivations during vegetation, the application of fertilizer during the rosette and budding phases (up to 100 kg/ha of NPK), and destruction of weeds, pests, and causative agents of disease. Fennel is gathered by adapted grain-harvesting combines when approximately half the umbels have turned brown. After threshing, the seeds are dried to a moisture content of 13–14 percent. Insect pests of fennel include beetles of the genus Lethrus, wireworms, june beetles, turnip moths, and beet webworms; the most harmful disease is Cercospora infection.

REFERENCES

Shul’gin, G. T., and K. D. Zaloznyi. Kratkii spravochnik po efiromaslichnym kul’turam. Moscow, 1959.
Efiromaslichnye kul’tury. Moscow, 1963.

K. D. ZALOZNYI

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Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.
Five medicinal plants including Mentha piperita (pudina), Violo odorata (panafsha), Trachyspermum copiticum (ajwain), Metricarea chamomile (babuna) and Foeniculum vulgare (saunf) were purchased from the local market of the Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.
Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill, (fennel) seed extracts.
It is to be noted that various spices like Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale, Foeniculum vulgare, and Allium sativum are also used in Punjab State of India to prevent or alleviate digestive disorders (Sidhu et al.
Burn, cancer Aloe Vera APIACEAE Foeniculum vulgare Mill * High blood pressure, tranquilizer, Anise; fennel cramps, indigestion, diarrhea ASTERACEAE Achillea milUfolium L.
The products utilized for this study included a homeopathic product named Weight Off Plus which includes the following ingredients; Arginine 3x, 12x, 30x, Carnitine 3x, 12x, 30x, Ornithine 3x, 12x, 30x, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin 6x, 12x, 30x, 60x, and another homeopathic product named Assist, which includes the following ingredients; Foeniculum Vulgare 2x, Ammonium Bromatum 3x, Antimonium Crudum 3x, Fucus Vesiculosus 3x, Lecithin 3x, Arginine 3x, 12x, 30x, Calcarea Carbonica, 6x, Carnitine 3x, 12x, 30x, Ornithine 3x, 12x, 30x, Argentium Metallicum 6x, Galium Aparine 6x, Hyphthalamus 6x, Adrenalinum 6x, Pituitary 6x, Lac Dcfloratum 6x, Phytolacca Decandra 6x, Thyroidinium 6x, Fat 6x, 12x, 30x, Phosphorus 12x.
platyloba) and Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) are herbs that are traditionally used for menstrual disorders.
The current study examined the effects of storage and preparation on the antioxidant capacity of Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena) and Foeniculum vulgare (fennel).
Asteraceae), colonized by the aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch; and Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiaceae), colonized by the aphid Dysaphis foeniculus (Theobald).
Erskine Ogden and Rejmanek (2005) found in the case of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) that the scale of the treatment influences whether or not a treatment is successful.
INCI name: Water (and) hexylene glycol (and) betaine (and) superoxide dismutase (and) foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seed extract (and) visnaga vera extract
Also for planting in the background, Anise hyssop, Agastache Foeniculum, makes a bold garden accent with tall spikes of purple flowers that attract bees.