Foreign Bodies


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Foreign Bodies

 

foreign objects that penetrate the body from without. They cause changes in the body that vary with their size, shape, physical and chemical properties, presence of bacterial flora, and mechanism of their entry and location. Chemically active foreign bodies (for example, lead of indelible pencils) may produce an inflammatory reaction in the surrounding tissues and even cause necrosis. In blind fragmentation and bullet wounds, pieces of clothing, dirt, and so forth may lodge in the tissues along with the metal of the projectile. Bacterially contaminated foreign bodies cause suppuration. Foreign bodies may cause pain by pressing against nerves and result in vascular hemorrhage or perforation, but they can also remain in the body for many years without complications. In daily life, foreign bodies occur most frequently in children who swallow, inhale, and stuff into the nose and ear all kinds of objects. Adults accidentally swallow meat and fish bones and sometimes (while asleep or in a faint) their dentures.

Foreign bodies are removed from the respiratory tract of the pharynx and esophagus mainly with an endoscope. In the stomach and intestine, foreign bodies, even those with sharp edges, often move along harmlessly during peristaltic contractions and leave the body naturally. A type of food that coats (gruel, puree, fruit jelly, milk) is prescribed in such cases, and the movement of the foreign body is followed by X-rays. Foreign bodies in the eyes are removed with a tampon or magnet. Attempts by the individual to extract foreign objects by himself may result in rupture of the eardrum, injury to the cornea, and so forth.

Foreign bodies inserted into the body for therapeutic purposes for a certain period of time (pin to join together bone fragments after a fracture, cardiac pacemaker in heart block) or permanently (vascular prosthesis, cardiac valve) are in a class by themselves. Such foreign bodies should not irritate live tissues. The surfaces of prostheses coming in contact with blood should be absolutely smooth so as not to cause the formation of thrombi in the blood.

E. G. DEKHTIAR

References in periodicals archive ?
Doctors at the Gagan Hospital claimed that this was a record in terms of removal of foreign bodies ( more than 555) from the stomach of a living human being.
The sensitivity of the equipment to very small foreign bodies whilst not giving false positives really impressed me.
Because foreign bodies in the appendix are rare, reported management varies.
Foreign bodies were visible through a perforation distal to the diverticulum.
There is no one in Foreign Bodies with the nobility of James's Madame Vionnet, Chad's platonic infatuation, of whom, James implies, he will tire and then return to America to reap the fruits of capitalism.
At surgical exploration under general anaesthetic, two felt-like foreign bodies were removed with difficulty from ingrowing tissue.
To summarise, distal or impacted airway foreign bodies, such as small ballpoint pen parts, can prove very difficult to retrieve, especially in older children.
The Story: Foreign Bodies takes its broad outlines from Henry James's novel The Ambassadors (1903), in which an American gentleman is dispatched by a friend to rescue her son from decadent Parisian life.
The study showed that although this led to 8-day longer hospital stays and $35,681 higher total hospital charges than operations in children without foreign bodies left behind, they did not increase mortality.
Remove embedded foreign bodies or concretions from conjunctiva, using topical anesthesia, not involving sclera;

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