Foreign Bodies


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Foreign Bodies

 

foreign objects that penetrate the body from without. They cause changes in the body that vary with their size, shape, physical and chemical properties, presence of bacterial flora, and mechanism of their entry and location. Chemically active foreign bodies (for example, lead of indelible pencils) may produce an inflammatory reaction in the surrounding tissues and even cause necrosis. In blind fragmentation and bullet wounds, pieces of clothing, dirt, and so forth may lodge in the tissues along with the metal of the projectile. Bacterially contaminated foreign bodies cause suppuration. Foreign bodies may cause pain by pressing against nerves and result in vascular hemorrhage or perforation, but they can also remain in the body for many years without complications. In daily life, foreign bodies occur most frequently in children who swallow, inhale, and stuff into the nose and ear all kinds of objects. Adults accidentally swallow meat and fish bones and sometimes (while asleep or in a faint) their dentures.

Foreign bodies are removed from the respiratory tract of the pharynx and esophagus mainly with an endoscope. In the stomach and intestine, foreign bodies, even those with sharp edges, often move along harmlessly during peristaltic contractions and leave the body naturally. A type of food that coats (gruel, puree, fruit jelly, milk) is prescribed in such cases, and the movement of the foreign body is followed by X-rays. Foreign bodies in the eyes are removed with a tampon or magnet. Attempts by the individual to extract foreign objects by himself may result in rupture of the eardrum, injury to the cornea, and so forth.

Foreign bodies inserted into the body for therapeutic purposes for a certain period of time (pin to join together bone fragments after a fracture, cardiac pacemaker in heart block) or permanently (vascular prosthesis, cardiac valve) are in a class by themselves. Such foreign bodies should not irritate live tissues. The surfaces of prostheses coming in contact with blood should be absolutely smooth so as not to cause the formation of thrombi in the blood.

E. G. DEKHTIAR

References in periodicals archive ?
Nazir OM, Kumarasamy S and Ahmed M, Ahmed S also documented removal of foreign body via tracheostomy but it was done for children aged 3-9 years and the foreign bodies were plastic whistle and nut4,5.
In the cases described, gastrointestinal foreign bodies were identified and removed by rigid endoscopy in 3 psittacine birds.
Foreign bodies most commonly perforate the cervical esophagus.
While most swallowed foreign bodies are removed spontaneously without any need for surgery, some cases are occasionally encountered that require surgical intervention (2).
Foreign bodies within the sinuses, orbit, and skull base region (FBSOS) are rarely reported in literature, and most of them are caused by trauma.
Metallic foreign bodies (MFB) within the breast develop out of surgical clips, broken pieces of guide-wires and gunshot injuries (GSI) (1).
Glass foreign bodies are among the most unusual ingested foreign bodies, and it is difficult to predict the consequences of their passing through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT).
In most cases (>80%), the foreign bodies would pass without any intervention; however, in some cases non-operative interventions (10-20%) would be required and in rare cases, surgical intervention (~~1%) is advocated.
1% of the foreign bodies extracted from patients by rigid bronchoscopy were nuts, 10.
The other foreign bodies removed from the tracheobronchial tree were shown in Table-II.
The most common corneal injuries are foreign bodies and abrasions.

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