tools used in manual and machine forging. Forging tools are used for moving, clamping, supporting, and measuring forging stock during forging and stamping operations. Hand forging is performed on an anvil. A hammerman delivers the blows with a sledgehammer. The blacksmith manipulates the forged piece, holding it with tongs and using a hand hammer, which is also used for light blows, to indicate to the hammerman where to strike a blow. Punches are used for making holes, chisels are used for cutting material into pieces, and swages are used during the finishing of forged pieces.
In machine forging the forging stock is placed on the bottom block of a hammer or press. The forging stock is formed directly by the action of the top block, which is attached to the slide block of the forging machine or to a backing tool. The faces may be flat, shaped (cut out), or rounded. Swages are used as a backing tool for finishing cylindrical and faceted forged pieces; fullers are used for local drawing and to create various local depressions; chucks are used for gripping and transferring forging stock. In addition to the forging tools mentioned, axes are used for cleaving stock; broaches, for piercing holes in forgings; and outside and inside calipers, for measurements.
V. P. LINTS