Formal Grammar

(redirected from Formal syntax)

Grammar, Formal

 

in linguistics, a logical system or calculation that poses a certain set of (“grammatical”) chains (finite sequences) constructed from symbols of a given finite set called an alphabet or basic (terminal) vocabulary.

In the theory of formal grammar, these chains are interpreted as linguistic objects of various levels (for example, syllables [chains of phones], word forms [chains of morphs], and sentences [chains of word forms]). Introduced into linguistics by the American scholar N. Chomsky, formal grammar represents a means for the strict description of natural languages. Formal grammar theory constitutes an important section of mathematical linguistics, which in turn is subdivided into generative grammar and recognition grammar.

Generative grammar poses a set of (grammatical) chains through the enumeration of the chains together with statements about their structure. Generative grammar can construct any grammatical chain, supplying it with a characteristic of its structure; it must not construct even a single incorrect chain. The best known of the generative grammars are the so-called Chomskian grammars.

Recognition grammar offers a set of (grammatical) chains as a result of their recognition: for any chain produced, the grammar decides whether or not it is grammatical; in the case of an affirmative answer, the grammar makes statements about the structure of the chain. The best known of the recognition grammars are the categorial grammars introduced by K. Ajdukiewicz and Y. Bar-Hillel.

REFERENCES

Chomsky, N., and G. Miller. “Vvedenie v formal’nyi analiz est-estvennykh iazykov.” In Kiberneticheskii sbornik, Novaia seriia. vol. 1. Moscow. 1965.
Chomsky, N. “Formal’nye svoistva grammatik.” In Kiberneticheskii sbornik, Novaia seriia, vol. 2. Moscow, 1966.
Bar-Hillel. Y. “Nekotorye novye resul’taty v teoreticheskoi lingvi-stike.” In Matematicheskaia logika i ee primenenie. Moscow, 1965.
Lambek, J. “Matematicheskoe issledovanie struktury predlo-zhenii.” In Matematicheskaia lingvistika. Moscow. 1964.
Gladkii, A. V. Lektsii po matematicheskoi lingvistike dlia studentov NGU. Novosibirsk, 1966.
Gladkii, A. V., and I. A. Mel’chuk. Elementy matematicheskoi lingvistiki. Moscow. 1969. Pages 23–136.

I. A. MEL’CHUK

References in periodicals archive ?
Among the topics are the scholarly use of the Internet: a conceptual model, a Greek into Arabic research infrastructure based on computational modules to annotate and query historical and philosophical digital texts, towards a translation platform as a bridge between ancient and modern languages, and the role of formal syntax as an aid for textual criticism.
And together with editor Alexander Berner, the director keeps us reliably off balance with an arrestingly jittery formal syntax, splicing in dream and memory sequences with an often unsettling lack of warning.
A metamodel of service choreography is built to provide a conceptual framework to capture the formal syntax and semantics of service choreography.
This volume collects ten papers dedicated to the topic of linguistic rarities, addressing such specific topics as rarities in the typology of numerals; the implications of rarities for the theory of language structure; initial consonant mutation as a trait of the Celtic languages; rare phenomena in case-marking and their implications for a theory of typological distributions; the marking of negativity by the absence of linguistic marking in some Dravidian languages; theoretical accounting for rare typological features in formal syntax, rara and grammatical theory; and the interrelation of language endangerment, community size, and typological rarity.
First encounters with formal syntax are known to be a challenging experience for students and instructors alike.
Functional specifications developed under conventional techniques usually specify formal syntax with semantic rules written in natural language.
The investigation into the explanation of the similarities of their codeswitching patterns underscores the role of the two unifying forces: on one hand, formal syntax and universal grammar seem to provide the general guidelines for switching; on the other hand, the similarities are explained by the need in every speaker to look for the best and the most accurate expressions to convey the meanings attempted during the flow of spontaneous conversation.
Holders of this position would argue that any formal syntax, no matter how comprehensive or sophisticated it may be, will fail to capture the semantics of the natural world.
s analytic precision about formal syntax and semantics is some abstractness, notwithstanding helpful examples from Sophocles against torture and on promise-keeping.
In prose tense with the contradiction between formal syntax and the putrid cruelty it describes, Holgate waits.
Weaver explains the basic machinery of forcing to fellow mathematics assuming no background in logic beyond the facility with formal syntax that should be second nature to any well trained mathematician.
These drawings were advertisements for Eisenman's autonomous architecture, in which a structure could be considered independent of anything other than its own formal syntax.

Full browser ?