Formosus(fôrmō`səs), c.816–896, pope (891–96), probably a Roman; successor of Stephen VI. Under Pope Nicholas INicholas I, Saint,
c.825–867, pope (858–67), a Roman; successor of Benedict III. He was a vigorous and politically active pope who arbitrated both temporal and religious disputes.
..... Click the link for more information. he had been bishop in Bulgaria, where he pursued a rigorous Romanizing campaign. Recalled to his diocese of Porto, he became influential in the church. He was excommunicated by Pope John VIIIJohn VIII,
d. 882, pope (872–82), a Roman; successor of Adrian II. John strenuously opposed the activities of St. Ignatius of Constantinople in Bulgaria. When Ignatius died, John recognized Photius as patriarch and called the council (879–80) that momentarily
..... Click the link for more information. for leading the party that opposed John's coronation of Charles the Bald. Later, he was restored and was subsequently elected pope. Involved in the dispute over the imperial power, he sided against the dukes of Spoleto, whose growing power was menacing the papacy. However, he was forced to crown Guido, duke of Spoleto, and his son Lambert. Formosus encouraged the German claimant, ArnulfArnulf
, c.850–899, Carolingian emperor (896–99), king of the East Franks (887–99), illegitimate son of Carloman of Bavaria. In 887 he led the rebellion of the kingdom of the East Franks (Germany) against his uncle, Carolingian Emperor Charles III, and was
..... Click the link for more information. , to invade Italy and crowned (896) him emperor. After Formosus' death, the Spoletos came into power. He was succeeded by Boniface VI. Formosus' grave was desecrated, and his pontificate declared invalid. In 897 he was reinterred, and Pope John XI validated his acts.