Fourteen Points


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Fourteen Points,

formulation of a peace program, presented at the end of World War I by U.S. President Woodrow WilsonWilson, Woodrow
(Thomas Woodrow Wilson), 1856–1924, 28th President of the United States (1913–21), b. Staunton, Va. Educator

He graduated from Princeton in 1879 and studied law at the Univ. of Virginia.
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 in an address before both houses of Congress on Jan. 8, 1918. The message, though intensely idealistic in tone and primarily a peace program, had certain very practical uses as an instrument for propaganda. It was intended to reach the people and the liberal leaders of the Central Powers as a seductive appeal for peace, in which purpose it was successful. It was intended also to make it plain to the Allies that the United States would not be a party to a selfish peace, and it was planned to appeal for the support of the liberal elements in Allied countries in achieving an unselfish settlement. It was intended to stimulate moral fervor at home. Finally it was hoped that the points would provide a framework for peace discussions. The message immediately gave Wilson the position of moral leadership of the Allies and furnished him with a tremendous diplomatic weapon as long as the war persisted. In this period few stopped to analyze the practical implications of its far-reaching principles or realized that it cut across the secret treaties of the Allies. After the armistice, opposition to the points quickly crystallized, and the actual treaty (see Versailles, Treaty ofVersailles, Treaty of,
any of several treaties signed in the palace of Versailles, France. For the Treaty of Versailles of 1783, which ended the American Revolution, see Paris, Treaty of, 1783.
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) represented a compromise or defeat of many of them. The first five points were general in nature and may be summarized as follows: (1) "open covenants openly arrived at"; (2) freedom of the seas in peace and war; (3) removal of economic barriers between nations as far as possible; (4) reduction of armaments to needs for domestic safety; (5) adjustment of colonial claims with concern for the wishes and interests of the inhabitants as well as for the titles of rival claimants. The next eight points referred to specific questions: (6) evacuation and general restoration of conquered territories in Russia; (7) preservation of Belgian sovereignty; (8) settlement of the Alsace-Lorraine question; (9) redrawing of Italian frontiers according to nationalities; (10) the division of Austria-Hungary in conformance to its nationalities; (11) the redrawing of Balkan boundaries with reference to historically established allegiance and nationalities; (12) Turkish control only of their own peoples and freedom of navigation through the Dardanelles; (13) the establishment of an independent Poland with access to the sea. The last point (14) was a provision for "a general association of nations … under specific covenants." The League of Nations grew out of the last point.

Bibliography

See R. S. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement (1923, repr. 1960); T. A. Bailey, Wilson and the Peacemakers (2 vol., 1947, repr. 1963); K. Schwabe, Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, and Peacemaking, 1918–1919 (1985).

Fourteen Points

 

the conditions for peace, as formulated in 14 articles by President W. Wilson of the USA at the end of World War I in an address to Congress on Jan. 8,1918.

The Fourteen Points consisted of the following aims: (1) open covenants of peace openly arrived at; (2) absolute freedom of navigation (“freedom of the seas”); (3) abolition of trade barriers (“freedom of trade”); (4) establishment of disarmament guarantees; (5) settlement of colonial claims; (6) evacuation by Germany of all occupied Russian territories and the granting to Russia of the opportunity to determine its own political development; (7) evacuation and restitution of Belgium; (8) the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France and the restoration of occupied regions to France; (9) the readjustment of Italian frontiers along lines of nationality; (10) autonomous development for the peoples of Austria-Hungary; (11) evacuation by Germany of the occupied territories of Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro, with an outlet to the sea for Serbia; (12) opportunity for autonomous development for the non-Turkish portions of the Ottoman Empire and freedom of shipping through the Dardanelles for all nations; (13) the creation of a Polish state; and (14) the creation of the League of Nations.

The Fourteen Points represented an imperialist program for peace based on the establishment of the hegemony of the USA in international affairs. In particular, the “freedom of trade” was to open world markets for the economically most powerful country—the USA. The “freedom of the seas” was directed against the British Navy’s control over world trade routes. The slogan “disarmament” was calculated to weaken the military might of Great Britain and Japan. One of the essential goals of the Fourteen Points was to mask the expansionist aims of US foreign policy, which was especially necessary with regard to the enunciation by Soviet Russia of a democratic and just peace, which was contained in the Decree on Peace.

References in periodicals archive ?
Seldom mentioned in standard histories is the fact that "Wilson's" Fourteen Points (to which he subsequently added the "Four Principles," the "Four Ends," and the "Five Particulars") were actually the creation of two shadowy organizations that have stamped a dark mark on world history: the Fabian Society, Britain's premier socialist organization; and the Inquiry, the secret group that became the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR).
Assessing the events in Paris, Baker wrote that "the greatest fault of this whole peace conference is the failure to take the people into our confidence"--in other words, Wilson's abrogation of the first of the Fourteen Points.
In 1929, Jinnah presented his famous Fourteen Points in response to the Nehru Report.
All the pity, because before 1948, before the establishment of Israel in Palestine, before American presidents were enjoined against making unbiased decisions about the Middle East, America enjoyed a sterling reputation in the region rooted not only in the fact that Americans never colonized Arabs, but it was Woodrow Wilson, an American president, who at the Versailles Conference introduced his Fourteen Points Program, which enshrined the principle of self-determination for formerly colonized or "subjugated" peoples, at the time a revolutionary principle indeed.
Although the 32-year-old scored fourteen points and seven rebounds, but his teams still got defeated 106-92.
The Nehru Report, therefore, was responded as well as rejected in the Fourteen Points of Jinnah.
Fourteen points separate the table-topping hosts from their their tenth-placed visitors but it could be argued that both clubs have been performing above expectations.
The Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War, contained little of the spirit of the Fourteen Points that had promised an equable end to the war.
DuBois and the racial impact of his Fourteen Points.
Britain and France opposed the Fourteen Points and not only codified their Middle East policy in the League of Nations Charter, they also demanded reparations from Germany in the Treaty of Versailles that worsened their economic problems and indirectly allowed Hitler to ascend to power.
President Wilson's lofty goals for the peace conference, elaborated in statements such as the Fourteen Points, mattered not only to Europeans, but also to colonial peoples hoping to undo the imperialism of the great powers.
There are fourteen points of similarities that are identical in the fingerprint tests.