Francisco Suárez

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Suárez, Francisco

 

Born Jan. 5, 1548, in Granada; died Sept. 25, 1617, in Lisbon. Spanish theologian and philosopher; representative of “second Scholasticism.” Jesuit.

Suárez graduated from the University of Salamanca in 1570. During the period 1570–80, he taught in Salamanca, Segovia, Valladolid, and Avila, from 1580 to 1585 at the Roman College, from 1585 to 1593 in Alcalá and then again in Salamanca. Beginning in 1597 he taught at the University of Coimbra in Portugal.

Suárez greatly modified the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas and proposed some ideas similar to John Duns Scotus. Denying that essence was really distinct from existence, he held that the singular has primacy over the general: a thing is neither form nor matter but has primacy over both and is identical with the fact of being. In the disputes on the relationship between free will and divine predestination, which gained in intensity in the polemics with the proponents of Protestantism, Suárez shifted the emphasis from predestination to god’s foreknowledge: god does not determine man’s free choice but has foreknowledge of it and, in accordance with this foreknowledge of man’s path to god, confers grace.

Suárez’s doctrine was opposed by the official circles of the church but later gained wide currency among Catholic theologians. His main philosophical work, Metaphysical Disputations (1597), was very influential, in particular in the universities of the 17th century, and left a marked imprint on the work of even such anti-Scholastic philosophers as Descartes and Leibniz. Politically, Suárez justified tyrannicide: a ruler who has become a tyrant and thereby violates the divine principle of rule, which is understood as a just contract between the people and the ruler, deserves to be killed. Suárez’s treatises on natural law had a considerable influence on H. Grotius.

WORKS

Opera omnia, vols. 1–28. Paris, 1856–78.

REFERENCES

Scoraille, R. de. F. Suárez, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1912–13.
Rommen, H. Die Staatslehre des F. Suárez. Munich, 1926.
Mullaney, T. Suárez on Human Freedom. Baltimore, 1950.
Perena Vicente, L. Teoría de la guerra en F. Suárez, vols. 1–2. Madrid, 1954.
Dumont, P. Liberté humaine et concours divin d’après Suárez. Paris, 1960.
Wilenius, R. The Social and Political Theory of Francisco Suárez. Helsinki, 1963.
McCormick, J. J. A Suárezian Bibliography. Chicago, 1937.
Múgica, P. Bibliográfica suáreciana. Granada, 1948.
References in periodicals archive ?
Most of these figures are Jesuits or ex-Jesuits (such as Jesuits Pedro Juan Perpinan, Famiano Strada, Francisco Suarez, Leonardo Lessius; and ex-Jesuits Agostino Mascardi and Paolo Beni).
Selections from Three Works of Francisco Suarez, S.
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The chief merit in this text is a concise and informative sketch of 'the life and times of Francisco Suarez, S.
of Cologne, Germany), who has published extensively on the writings of Duns Scotus, Henry of Ghent, Thomas Aquinas, and others, offers a comprehensive overview of the development of transcendental thought from the 12th century through and including the 1597 Disputationes metaphysicae of Francisco Suarez.
The old canon is well-represented but many other figures make a more than fleeting appearance too, such as Michel de Montaigne, Francisco Suarez, Hugo Grotius, Pierre Gassendi, Nicholas Malebranche, Pierre Bayle, Samuel Pufendorf, and Thomas Reid.
The Parlement condemned the political writings of the two greatest Jesuit theologians of the era, Robert Bellarmine and Francisco Suarez.
Francisco Suarez from the Institutional Revolutionary Party agreed with Gurria on the value-added tax point, saying that the modern tendency is to apply them more, decrease interest rates and improve the quality and efficiency of expenditures.
During the Middle Ages, scholastic philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas, Francisco Suarez, and Francisco de Vitoria further developed just war theory.