Free State


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Free State,

formerly Orange Free State, province (2011 pop. 2,745,590), 50,126 sq mi (129,825 sq km), E central South AfricaSouth Africa,
Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2011 pop. 51,770,560), 471,359 sq mi (1,220,813 sq km), S Africa. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean in the west, on Namibia in the northwest, on Botswana and Zimbabwe in the north, on
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. It was renamed Free State shortly after the 1994 post-apartheid constitution went into effect. Free State is bounded by North West on the northwest, Gauteng on the north, Mpumalanga on the northeast, KwaZulu-Natal on the east, Lesotho and Eastern Cape on the south, and Northern Cape on the west.

BloemfonteinBloemfontein
, city, judicial capital of South Africa, capital of Free State prov., and seat of Mangaung metropolitan municipality. It is a transportation hub and industrial center, containing railroad workshops, food-processing plants, and factories that produce furniture,
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 is the capital and largest city; other important cities include BethlehemBethlehem,
town, Free State prov., E central South Africa, part and seat of Dihlabeng local municipality. It is situated in a farming and livestock area and has industries producing furniture and food products.
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 and KroonstadKroonstad
, city, part and seat of Moqhaka local municipality, Free State prov., E central South Africa, on the Vals River. It is an agricultural and industrial center. There are grain elevators, and grain is shipped from the town.
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. The province lies between the Vaal River in the north and the Orange River in the south. It is chiefly a plateau, rising gradually from c.4,000 ft (1,220 m) in the west to c.6,000 ft (1,830 m) in the east; there are higher elevations in the Drakensberg Range in the southeast.

The economy is mainly agricultural; sunflowers, corn, wheat, sorghum, potatoes, cherries, asparagus, and cut flowers are grown, and sheep and cattle are raised. Gold mining also is important, and silver, uranium, diamonds, and coal are mined as well. Synthetic rubber, fertilizers, plastics, textiles, and processed foods are manufactured, and oil is refined from coal. Bloemfontein is the province's road and rail hub. The main languages are Sesotho, Afrikaans, and Xhosa.

In the early 19th cent. the Orange Free State was inhabited mainly by the Bantu-speaking Tswana people. Afrikaner farmers (BoersBoer
[Du.,=farmer], inhabitant of South Africa of Dutch or French Huguenot descent. Boers are also known as Afrikaners. They first settled (1652) near the Cape of Good Hope in what was formerly Cape Province.
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) entered the territory from the 1820s; after 1835 their immigration accelerated (see Trek, GreatTrek, Great
, the journey by Afrikaner farmers (Boers) who left the Cape Colony to escape British domination and eventually founded Natal, Transvaal, and the Orange Free State. Trek is an Afrikaans term, originally meaning a journey by ox wagon.
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). In 1848 the British, who then held Cape Colony and Natal, annexed the region as the Orange River Sovereignty. After conflicts with the Boers and failure to establish an orderly administration, Britain, by the Bloemfontein Convention (1854), granted the territory independence as the Orange Free State. With the increased tension following the raid into the TransvaalTransvaal
, former province, NE South Africa. With the new constitution of 1994, it was divided into Eastern Transvaal (now Mpumalanga), Northern Transvaal (now Limpopo), Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Veereeniging (now Gauteng), and part of North West prov.
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 (1895–96), led by L. S. Jameson, the Free State was drawn into the conflict between Britons and Boers that resulted in the South African WarSouth African War
or Boer War,
1899–1902, war of the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State against Great Britain. Background
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 (1899–1902). The British again annexed the Free State, as the Orange River Colony, in 1900. In 1907 the colony was granted self-government, and in 1910 it became a founding province of the Union (now Republic) of South Africa.

Free State

1. a province of central South Africa; replaced the former province of Orange Free State in 1994: gold and uranium mining. Capital: Bloemfontein. Pop.: 2 950 661 (2004 est.). Area: 129 480 sq. km (49 992 sq. miles)
2. US History (before the Civil War) any state prohibiting slavery
3. short for the Irish Free State
References in periodicals archive ?
According to the Free State Project Watch site, they are "those individuals who have worked to support the growth of the Free State Project in New Hampshire, and who actively participate in numerous Free State Project activities.
SEVERAL YEARS AGO, I embarked on a postgraduate study of western County Galway in the Free State period.
They declare a free state dedicated to the idea that all men and women are created equal.
He said: "Obviously Free State Of Jones isn't a Saturday character.
Soike makes some key points about the involvement of Iowa that can help historians think about the relationship between free states, slave states, and the territories in new ways.
Thankfully Free State Kitchen, and just in case Ice Cube is reading this, NWA, both have an excellent reputation.
The focus of the discussion is on the actions taken in furtherance of institution-building and the policies enacted by the Irish Free State in the realms of law and order, the creation of the Irish public service, health and social warfare, education and the Irish language, finances, agriculture and land, fisheries, foreign policy, trade and industry, and communications.
Free State of Bavaria, thereby providing creditors with direct recourse
Impact of inter-facility transport on maternal mortality in the Free State Province.
location-specific) information on vaccine sales was available, vaccination coverage was estimated under 3 scenarios (A, B, and C): Scenario A assumed that vaccination coverage was applied throughout South Africa proportional to the livestock population; Scenario B assumed that the number of vaccines used in a province over a specific period was proportional to the number of cases reported in that province over that same period; Scenario C assumed that all vaccines were used in Free State Province during Periods 2 and 3 and that no vaccine had been used before the epidemic (Period 1).
At press time, nearly 14,000 liberty lovers had pledged to move to New Hampshire once the Free State Project reaches its goal of 20,000 signatories.
The senior Indian officials and their delegations were in South Africa for bilateral engagements with the Free State government," High commission said in a statement.

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