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French Sudan:see MaliMali
, officially Republic of Mali, independent republic (2005 est. pop. 12,292,000), 478,764 sq mi (1,240,000 sq km), the largest country in W Africa. Mali is bordered on the north by Algeria, on the east and southeast by Niger, on the south by Burkina Faso and Côte
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a French colony in West Africa, along the upper and middle courses of the Senegal and Niger rivers, in 1894–99 and 1920–58. From 1899 to 1920, the French Sudan, together with Niger and Upper Volta, formed the colony of Upper Senegal and Niger. In 1958 the French Sudan was granted autonomy and became a member of the French Community under the name of the Sudanese Republic. In September 1960, the Sudanese Republic became the independent Republic of Mali.