French Equatorial Africa

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French Equatorial Africa,

former French federation in W central Africa. It consisted of four constituent territories: GabonGabon
, officially Gabonese Republic, republic (2005 est. pop. 1,389,000), 103,346 sq mi (267,667 sq km), W central Africa. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean in the west, on Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon in the north, and on Congo (Brazzaville) in the east and south.
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, Middle Congo (see Congo, Republic of theCongo, Republic of the,
republic (2005 est. pop. 3,039,000), 132,046 sq mi (342,000 sq km), W central Africa; also known as the Congo Republic. Congo is bordered on the west by Gabon; on the north by Cameroon and the Central African Republic; on the east and southeast by the
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), ChadChad
, officially Republic of Chad, republic (2005 est. pop. 9,826,000), 495,752 sq mi (1,284,000 sq km), N central Africa. Chad is bordered by the Central African Republic on the south, Sudan on the east, Libya on the north, and Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria on the west.
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, and Ubangi-Shari (now the Central African RepublicCentral African Republic,
republic (2005 est. pop. 3,800,000), 240,534 sq mi (622,983 sq km), central Africa. The landlocked nation is bordered by Chad (N), Sudan and South Sudan (E), Congo (Kinshasa) and Congo (Brazzaville) (S), and Cameroon (W).
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). The capital was Brazzaville. The federation was formed in large part through the efforts of Savorgnan de BrazzaBrazza, Pierre Paul François Camille Savorgnan de
, 1852–1905, Franco-Italian empire builder. He was born Pietro Paolo Savorgnan di Brazza but adopted the French form of his name in 1874, when he became a French citizen.
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, who forged the link between French possessions in the Congo basin and those in W Africa. French Equatorial Africa (originally called French Congo) was officially established in 1910. Until 1920, Chad and Ubangi-Shari were a single territory. The federation was ruled by a governor-general, resident in Brazzaville, who had a deputy in each of the four territories. About 100,000 sq mi (259,000 sq km) were ceded to Germany as a result of the Agadir crisis (1911) but were returned to France by the Treaty of Versailles. During World War II the federation supported the Free French. In the Fourth French Republic, French Equatorial Africa was given representation in the French parliament and in the assembly of the French Union. When the constituent territories voted (1958) to become autonomous republics within the French Community, the federation was dissolved. In 1959 the new republics formed a loose association called the Union of Central African Republics, and in 1960 they became fully independent republics within the French Community.

French Equatorial Africa

 

a political and administrative association of French possessions in Equatorial Africa that existed from 1910 to 1958; it was called the French Congo prior to 1910. The association included the colonies of Gabon, the Middle Congo, Ubangi-Shari, and Chad, all administered from Brazzaville. The spread of the anti-imperialist struggle in the French possessions after World War II forced the French government in 1958 to grant these colonies the status of autonomous republics within the French Community. The Middle Congo took the name Congo Republic (now the People’s Republic of the Congo), and Ubangi-Shari became the Central African Republic (Central African Empire from December 1976 to September 1979). After the association was abolished, its former constituent republics declared their independence in August 1960.

French Equatorial Africa

the former French overseas territories of Chad, Gabon, Middle Congo, and Ubangi-Shari (1910--58)