Friedrich Ratzel

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Ratzel, Friedrich


Born Aug. 30, 1844, in Karlsruhe; died Aug. 9, 1904, in Ammerland, near Starnberger See. German geographer, ethnographer, and sociologist. Professor at the University of Leipzig (from 1886). One of the founders of the school of human geography.

Ratzel’s main works dealt with the relationship between man and his natural environment. His mistaken conception about the determining influence of nature on culture and sociopolitical relations had an important influence on the formation of geopolitcs. Ratzel based his work in general geography on his travels in southern Europe and North America.


Anthropogeographie, vol. 1, 4th ed. Stuttgart, 1921. Vol. 2, 3rd ed.: Stuttgart, 1922.
Politische Geographie, 3rd ed. Munich-Berlin, 1923.
In Russian translation:
Narodovedenie, vols. 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1900–01.
Zemlia izhizn’, vols. 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1903–06.
References in periodicals archive ?
Through his father, Haushofer met Professor Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904), an ardent pan-Germanist and theoretician of geopolitics.
For instance, Friedrich Ratzel (a notable geographer, ethnographer and biologist), the creator of Lebensraum (the need of living space), theorized and compared the state to that of a living organism, in search of augmenting its space to support the carrying capacity of its species under its physical environment.
As Wilson notes, the geographer Friedrich Ratzel and the liberal editor Johannes Trojan both linked Germany's forests to a sense of national identity, desperately needed in a recently unified country.
Na leitura sobre a razao da riqueza em Friedrich Ratzel, das condicoes ambientais e materiais, Robert Moraes escreve: "(.
Exemplo disso e a discussao feita por Friedrich Ratzel, em 1882, em Anthropogeographie (8).
De fato, Friedrich Ratzel publicara em 1904 um longo artigo na Historische Zeitschrift em que critica Eduard Meyer por deixar de fora de sua Historia da Antiguidade os chamados "povos naturais".
Les deux geants de l'anthropologie germanique a l'epoque coloniale, soit avant la Premiere Guerre mondiale, etaient Adolf Bastian et Friedrich Ratzel.
Mackinder, the German `anthropogeographical' Friedrich Ratzel, and the French `anarchist' Elisee Reclus.
E na Alemanha de fins do seculo XIX que surgem as primeiras tentativas de sistematizacao conceitual e de definicao de um objeto proprio da geografia por meio dos trabalhos de Alexandre von Humboldt, Friedrich Ratzel e Karl Ritter.
Friedrich Ratzel ao elaborar uma nova forma de abordagem da geografia que nao fosse a descritiva criou a Geografia Moderna, sendo que o metodo descritivo "deveria ser o meio e nao o fim".
E desta forma que Friedrich Ratzel imagina a geopolitica com Estados que necessitam de recursos para sua alimentacao e espaco para locomover sua populacao.