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(vertebrate zoology)
The finches, a family of oscine birds in the order Passeriformes.



a family of birds of the order of Pas-serif ormes. They are small or medium-sized. The males of many species are more brightly colored than the females, with red and yellow hues often appearing in their plumage coloring. The beak on some fringillines is conic, massive, and adapted for shelling or crushing seeds, whereas on others it is thin and serves to pluck seeds from pods, such as in bur-docks. On crossbills the upper and lower beaks cross at the end, an adaptation for plucking seeds from the cones of firs and pines.

Fringillines are divided into three subfamilies, the Fringillinae (three species), Carduelinae (122 species), and Geospizinae (13 species). Fringillinae are native to the Palearctic only, the Carduelinae are extremely widely distributed (although they do not exist in Madagascar, Australia, Oceania, and the Antarctic), and the Geospizinae inhabit only the Galapagos Islands and Coco Island. There are 35 species of Fringillidae in the USSR. They are especially numerous in the temperate latitudes but are found in all zones, from the tundra to the deserts and tropics and from sea level to the alpine mountain belt. Many fringillines live in forests or underbrush, but there are also desert dwellers. Some kinds of fringillines settle around human dwellings. The northern species are migratory; the southern are sedentary; and the alpine fringillines fly down into valleys in the winter. They are monogamous, nesting, with rare exceptions, in separate pairs. Their nests are open and are made of grass and twigs, forming a deep trough lined with wool, feathers, hair, and such; they are built on trees, shrubs, and the ground. Only the female bird builds the nest and broods. There are four to six eggs in a clutch (rarely, three or seven), and they are usually variegated. Most of the species have one brood a year, but some (for example, chaffinches, greenfinches, lin-nets) have two. Brooding takes ten to 14 days. At the end of the nesting season Fringillidae usually gather into flocks. Their basic food consists of seeds, grain, and berries, and insects are a less important element of their diet. Certain fringillines are harmful to agriculture, endangering grain and vegetable crops (white-winged grosbeaks, linnets, and greenfinches), or are harmful to forestry, eating the seeds of timber species (crossbills, grosbeaks, and others). They are useful because they eat the seeds of weeds and harmful in-sects.


Ptitsy Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 5. Edited by G. P. Dement’ev and N. A. Gladkov. Moscow, 1954.


References in periodicals archive ?
El rostro conico de Pampaemberiza olrogi sugiere su ubicacion dentro de los Fringillidae (OLSON & MCKITRICK, 1981).
Furthermore, the coracoid major artery has been reported to originate from the subclavian artery in the orders Coliiformes (Glenny, 1944), Columbiformes (pigeons and doves) (Glenny, 1946) and Trogoniformes (Glenny, 1948b), as well as in the family Fringillidae (Glenny, 1942b).
1 Lafresnaye, 1837 Saltator atricollis Vieillot, 1817 - - D, T (Vs) ICTERIDAE Chrysomus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1819) M - - Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) - - FRINGILLIDAE Carduelis magellanica (Vieillot, 1805) - - Euphonia chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766) 14.
In the tola habitat, Furnariidae was the family with more species (7 species), followed by Emberezidae (4 species), Tyrannidae and Fringillidae with three species each (Tables 1, 5, 6).
The Fringillidae (56%, primarily infected with Plasmodium), Turdidae (53% infected with microfilariae) and Columbidae (36% primarily infected with Haemoproteus) showed the highest prevalence of infection with haematozoa.
neglecta (Audubon), western N R meadowlark Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus W R (Bonaparte), yellow-headed blackbird Family Fringillidae (finches) Carduelis flammea (Linnaeus), N R common redpoll C.
It is also home to different species of swifts (family Apodidae), swallows (Hirundinidae), wrens (Troglodytidae), flycatchers (Muscicapidae), known locally as zorzales, finches (family Emberizidae, known as chirihues, chincoles, and semilleros; Fringillidae, the finches, linnets, and siskins known as jilgueros, diucas and yales), and the New World oriole (Icteridae) known as loicas and tordos.
After exposure, clinical disease was seen in all 4 species from the family Fringillidae and in eastern tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor).
atricapillus (+) SB VA 363 Atlapetes gutturalis (+) BS,RB V 364 Arremonops conirostris RB,BS VA 365 Arremon aurantiirostris SB,BB,BS VARC 366 Zonotrichia capensis RB VR FRINGILLIDAE 367 Carduelis psaltria RB V 368 C.