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Related to Frisian: Frisian Islands, Frisian language


, Friesian
a language spoken in the NW Netherlands, parts of N Germany, and adjacent islands, belonging to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European family: the nearest relative of the English language; it has three main dialects



the language of the Frisians. Frisian is spoken mainly in the province of Friesland in The Netherlands, which includes the West Frisian Islands of Terschelling and Schiermonnikoog (population, approximately 350,000 people). It is also spoken in the northwestern part of the Federal Republic of Germany, mainly in the Saterland, in the Land of Lower Saxony (approximately 3,000), and the far north, in the Land of Schleswig-Holstein, including the North Frisian Islands and Helgoland (approximately 16,000).

Frisian, a West Germanic language, was once spoken on a vast territory along the North Sea. It includes three dialects: West Frisian (Friesland), East Frisian (Saterland), and North Frisian (Schleswig-Holstein). Urban Frisian, which is commonly spoken in the towns of Friesland, has been significantly influenced by Dutch. Frisian is closely related to Old English.

The phonological system of Frisian is notable for its rich vowel system, which has nasal vowels, 26 diphthongs, and six triphthongs. Nouns have two genders, and the declension system has been virtually lost; the one remaining case, the genitive, is used only to a limited extent. The language has strong and weak verbs, and its tense system is typical of the majority of the Germanic languages.

The first examples of written Frisian date from the 13th century. Since the 16th century, when Friesland lost its independence, Dutch has been used for all official purposes, and Frisian primarily for spoken communication. The most important poet who wrote in Frisian was Gijsbert Japicx (17th century). In recent decades, Frisian has been taught in schools in The Netherlands. The number of books published in Frisian has notably increased, and periodicals in Frisian have appeared.

The Frisian language uses the Latin alphabet.


Fokkema, K. Beknopte Friese spraakkunst. Groningen-Batavia, 1948.
Sipma, P. Phonology and Grammar of Modern West Frisian. Ljouwert, 1966.
Pietersen, L. De Friezen en hun taal. Drachten, 1969.


References in periodicals archive ?
Letter (The Frisian Origins of the Mercian Dialect).
Tees Dock: Fast Julia, City of Lutece, Thetis, Frisian Trader.
Where did the Frisian author come by the information that Henry had originally been known as Popteto Ulvinga?
out of Frisian mists on lighters pulled by tugs of shallow draft and
The cruise of the yawl Dulcibella (my own yawl is named after her) along the fog-shrouded, sandbank islands of the German Frisian coast is one of the greatest sailing/spy novels of all time.
Because the species' southern-most distribution limit is the southern North Sea, at the Frisian Front, we examined if M.
This reading implies that the Frisian king had been fighting in the battle as ally or (more likely) vassal of the Frankish king and had been slain, presumably by Beowulf.
Besides, any genetic tree that places English more than one node away from Frisian is too arbitrary to be credible.
Exhibition hall, West Frisian Flower Show, Bovenkarspel, the Netherlands, 1999.
Some students also speak Turkish, Eritrean, Italian and Frisian, a language from the north of the country.