frontier

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frontier,

in U.S. history, the border area of settlement of Europeans and their descendants; it was vital in the conquest of the land between the Atlantic and the Pacific. The importance of the westward movement of the population and the lure of the frontier were clear even to colonial writers and early U.S. historians, but the theory that the frontier was a governing factor (if not the governing factor) in developing a distinctive U.S. civilization was not formulated until 1893, when Frederick Jackson TurnerTurner, Frederick Jackson,
1861–1932, American historian, b. Portage, Wis. He taught at the Univ. of Wisconsin from 1885 to 1910 except for a year spent in graduate study at Johns Hopkins.
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 presented his thesis.

Basically, Turner held that American democracy was shaped by the frontier, namely by the contest of the settler with the wilderness of the frontier. There the settler learned self-reliance, judged others by their abilities, strove to improve his or her lot, and grew distrustful of external authority and formal institutions. In short, the frontier molded an American national character that was individualistic and egalitarian. Turner's work stimulated a tremendous amount of research and writing on the history and meaning of the frontier.

There is no question that the process of peopling the West is a central theme in U.S. history, although not, perhaps, for the reasons Turner suggested. The cultivation of frontier lands provided food for the growing number of workers in Eastern cities; its mineral wealth and other natural resources aided industrialization; and the need to keep the East and West united led to a complex and efficient national system of transportation and communication. At the same time, the existence of barely settled lands helped preserve a rural tinge to America well into the 20th cent. Many studies have been devoted to the fur trade frontier, the mining frontier, the grazing frontier, and other types of frontier, but emphasis has been to a large extent on the solid achievements of the farming frontier and on the central United States.

Bibliography

See F. J. Turner, The Frontier in American History (1920); F. L. Paxson, History of the American Frontier (1924); W. P. Webb, The Great Plains (1931) and The Great Frontier (1952); R. A. Billington and J. B. Hedges, Westward Expansion (1949); H. N. Smith, Virgin Land (1950); L. B. Wright, Culture on the Moving Frontier (1955); R. A. Bartlett, Great Surveys of the American West (1980); R. V. Hine, Community on the American Frontier (1985); P. M. Nelson, After the West Was Won (1989).

frontier

[frən′tir əv ə ′set]
(mathematics)
For a set in a topological space, all points in the closure of the set but not in its interior. Also known as boundary.

Frontier

Boone, Daniel
(1734–1820) American frontiersman in coonskin cap. [Am. Hist.: Hart, 90]
Bowie, Jim
(1799–1836) frontiersman and U.S. soldier; developed large hunting knife named after him. [Am. Hist.: Payton, 95]
Bumppo, Natty
also known as Leatherstocking, a tough back-woodsman. [Am. Lit.: Deerslayer; Pathfinder]
California Joe
(Moses Embree Milner, 1829–1876) frontiersman and scout. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 424]
Virginian, The
up-and-coming cowpuncher defends his honor, espouses justice, and gains responsibility and a bride. [Am. Lit.: The Virginian in Magill I, 1072]

frontier

a. the region of a country bordering on another or a line, barrier, etc., marking such a boundary
b. (as modifier): a frontier post
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When the War of 1812 erupted and the British sent the Red Stick faction of Creeks to attack American settlers in Tennessee and Alabama, which included a horrific slaughter of hundreds of women and children at Fort Mims, Andrew Jackson had no problem in quickly raising a militia force of 2,000 frontiersmen.
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Hence he negotiated with, rather than confronted, Indians and frontiersmen.
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From the lives of slaves and paupers to the hardships faced by frontiersmen to the relative luxury of east coast elites, Where We Lived offers a mosaic of the American experience for readers of all backgrounds, sure to enrich one's understanding of American history and culture.
But they disliked the frontiersmen who brought the axe and plow to clear forest land for their farms; these were the same lands where Indians hunted.
he is the author of 15 books, including ``Test Pilots: The Frontiersmen of Flight.
Whereas homosexuals traditionally modeled their bodies on the patrician ideal of the clean-shaven upper-middle-class aesthete, many older gay men have taken an unprecedented step down-scale and rejected this aristocratic appearance for an even more spurious blue-collar look, loosely based on quixotic images of old-fashioned frontiersmen and hearty plebeians like marines and truckers.
Washington felt some sympathy with the burdens the whiskey tax imposed on frontiersmen, but he also felt the authority of the republic was in jeopardy if its laws could be willfully flouted.
He would read to me and my brothers stories of Blackfoot Indians and Montana frontiersmen.
President Kennedy read The Other America shortly before his death and is said to have been moved by it to order his New Frontiersmen to begin drawing up policy blueprints based on the book.
The X-15A-2 slowed, dropping down from the skies over Edwards, as the chase planes looked on in amazement at the blackened and charred research plane, which resembled burnt firewood,'' Hallion wrote in his book ``Test Pilots - The Frontiersmen of Flight.