(Book 1 Frost Flower
Series) by Linda Hays-Gibbs
Although it's only been operational for a couple of months, we've already got several nice frost flower events, including a really beautiful blossom that lasted about 30 hours," Wang says.
At the University of Manitoba's Sea-ice Environment Research Facility frost flowers can be created under controlled conditions.
Frost flowers and bromine explosions sound almost extraterrestrial but they occur regularly in Canada's Arctic.
Part of Wang's work focuses on the role of frost flowers in so-called 'bromine explosions,' an atmospheric chemistry phenomenon that often follows large Arctic storms in the springtime.
Caption: Frost flowers like these can form when exposed sea water first starts to freeze.
Caption: A typical experiment at SERF can involve 30 researchers from different teams, such as these graduate students who are collecting frost flowers.
It also contains more frost flowers
-- clumps of ice crystals up to four times saltier than ocean waters -- providing more salt sources to fuel bromine releases.
Cool harvest Frost flowers
, the delicate crystals that sometimes grow atop fresh sea ice, were revealed as a substantial source of ozone-destroying bromine in the lower atmosphere near the North and South poles (166: 163).
with sugar as carly as the day before the party.
Frost flowers, the delicate crystals that sometimes grow atop fresh sea ice, can be a substantial source of ozone-destroying bromine in the lower atmosphere near the poles, researchers suggest.
The origin of bromine over ice-bound oceans has remained a mystery, but several lines of evidence now point to frost flowers as culprits.