Fruit Abscission

Abscission, Fruit


the separation of fruit from a branch caused by the formation of a separation layer of cells on the fruit stalk. It is also associated with the depletion of auxins by the fruit. The substance bonding the cells of the separation layer dissolves, and the cells separate from each other. At this stage of the process, the fruit is attached to the plant only by a vascular bundle. The wind and the force of gravity cause this bond to break, and the fruit falls. A fruit abscises soon after it sets. This is primarily because the plant cannot provide all of the developing fruits with the necessary amount of nutritive substances, and, as a result, those fruits that do not receive sufficient nourishment fall.

The premature abscission of fruit is often observed. The fruit abscises during infructescence and during the development of the germ. Premature abscission occurs as a result of damage by insects (primarily larvae of the codling moth) or by disease, low temperature, drought, and other unfavorable conditions. The principal method of combatting premature falling is the observance of a whole group of agricultural measures. Apple and pear trees should be sprayed with a weak auxin solution to delay the formation of the separation layer. To prevent the mass falling of cotton settings, the top of the main shoot is broken off and the branches growing on the lower part of the shrub are removed.

References in periodicals archive ?
Regarding the levels of carbohydrates caused by fruit abscission promoted by Ethephon, it was found that there was a linear increase in the percentage of thinning depending on the concentrations of Ethephon applied in the three years evaluated (Figure 5).
Also in a similar study, it was reported that, without using fruit abscission material, mechanized harvest systems cannot be successful in maximum fruit harvest from trees [25].
He also initiated research and development projects on fruit abscission and automated robotic harvesting for citrus.
It is produced in all higher plants and is usually associated with stimulation of fruit ripening, leaf and fruit abscission, flower opening and flower and leaf senescence.