Fruit Crop

Fruit Crop

 

any one of a group of wild and cultivated trees, shrubs, subshrubs, perennial undershrubs, and lianas that yield fleshy or hard edible fruits. In the USSR, plants from more than 50 genera, embracing 26 families, are used as fruit crops. The most important are the apple, pear, quince, sorbus, loquat, cherry plum, sweet cherry, plum, apricot, almond, peach, strawberry, and raspberry. Also important are the cornelian cherry, oleaster, sea buckthorn, European walnut, pecan, hazelnut, pistachio, olive, persimmon, fig, and mulberry. The pomegranate, feijoa, tangerine, orange, lemon, grapefruit, and citron are valuable for their fruit. Also important are the currant, gooseberry, European hazel, Actinidia, Schizandra, honeysuckle, viburnum, barberry, avocado and date palm. Many subtropical and tropical fruit crops are cultivated abroad. These include the mango, breadfruit tree, papaya, and banana.

Fruit crops may be deciduous (for example, berry, nut, pip [except for Eriobotrya], and drupe [except for cherry laurel] plants; some subtropical species, such as fig and persimmon) or evergreen (for example, raspberry, feijoa, all citrus). Fruit crops of temperate climates (apple, pear, cherry plum, plum) have a long winter dormancy. The characteristics of deciduous and evergreen crops determine the methods of cultivation to be used.

In the USSR, up to 90 percent of all orchard land is occupied by apple, cherry plum, plum, apricot, and pear trees. Sweet cherries, peaches, and quinces are cultivated in lesser quantities (2–3 percent). Nut crops (European walnut, hazelnut, pistachio, European hazel, and almond) occupy about 4 percent of orchard land, berry crops (strawberry, raspberry, currant, and gooseberry) about 2–3 percent, and subtropical fruits (olive, persimmon, fig, and pomegranate) and citrus (tangerine, orange, and lemon) about 1 percent.

The principal fruit crops in the USSR are the apple, cherry plum, and plum. The apple is the main fruit crop of Europe, Canada, the United States, and Argentina. In Mediterranean countries the olive, citrus fruits, and nuts are most widely cultivated. Subtropical and tropical fruits predominate in India and China, and bananas are the major fruit crops of Africa and South America. Fruit crops require various types of soil and climate.

In the northern and central fruit-growing zones of the USSR, apples, cherry plums, plums, pears, and all kinds of berries are cultivated. In the southern zone, in addition to the above-mentioned crops, the quince, sweet cherry, peach, and apricot are raised. Also cultivated are all kinds of nut crops. In the subtropical zone the principal fruit crops are the olive, fig, pomegranate, persimmon, and citrus.

Fruit crops are propagated mainly by vegetative methods. Such methods include grafting onto a stock, rooting cuttings, (currant, gooseberry, pomegranate, fig, olive), and shooting (cherry plum, plum).

REFERENCES

Zhukovskii, P.M. Kul’turnye rasteniia i ikh sorodichi, 3rd ed. Leningrad, 1971.
Plodovodstvo, 2nd ed. Edited by V. A. Kolesnikov. Moscow, 1966.

V. A. KOLESNIKOV

References in classic literature ?
How the telephone saved a three million dollar fruit crop in Colorado, in 1909, is the story that is oftenest told in the West.
The letters brought her news of the failure of last year's fruit crop in New Zealand, which was a serious matter, for Hubert, her only brother, made his living on a fruit farm, and if it failed again, of course, he would throw up his place, come back to England, and what were they to do with him this time?
it has been a year since we have received rain,' said Essa Khan Tareen, a farmer of Pishin district, hoping for a better fruit crop in the summer.
A trader Aslam Javed said, Fig is an important fruit crop in many countries including Pakistan because of its various uses and Fig has not only internal demand but also has export value.
If there is a summer drought or an excessive amount of rain, the fruit crop may also suffer, so take precautions.
The harvesting of any type of fruit crop also generates employment among the poor.
King of Fruits", Mango is one of the most popular and best-loved fruits and one of the most important fruit crop in the world as well as in Pakistan.
Dr Rajwana added the scarcity of water also affected the fruit crop.
AerHyve's initial focus has been on the wild blueberry industry, Nova Scotia's largest fruit crop.
In this respect, a canopy or a collection of neighboring canopies bearing enhanced fruit crop sizes tend to cause predator satiation, which consequence is an improved seed survival within a dense seed patch (Augspurger, 1981; Ghazoul and Satake, 2009).
This paper will describe our work of domestication of this new cactus fruit crop.
These trees can also provide a fruit crop for the community, which is why our bees are so important to us.