Fruiting Body


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Wikipedia.

fruiting body

[′früd·iŋ ‚bäd·ē]
(botany)
A specialized, spore-producing organ.

Fruiting Body

 

the receptacle of sporebearing organs found in most ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The fruiting body is formed by the interweaving of the hyphae of the mycelium and usually constitutes a visible part of the fungus. Only in truffles and a few other fungi is the entire body, including the fruiting body, hidden in the soil. The shape, size, consistency, and color of fruiting bodies vary widely and are considered as morphological characteristics in the taxonomy of fungi.

The following three types of fruiting bodies are distinguished in Ascomycetes: the cleistothecium, the perithecium, and the apothecium. The cleistothecia are rounded and closed and have a peridium (outer envelope). There are no special openings, and the asci develop the fruiting body either randomly or in bundles. The spores, or ascospores, are released from the fruiting body after the decay (in Plectascales) or rupture (in Erysiphaceae) of the peridium. Perithecia, which are pitcher-shaped, oval, or spherical, have a narrow opening at the top. Apothecia are saucer-shaped or cup-shaped. Less frequently they resemble little cushions or caps on a stalk (for example, in morels). The asci are distributed on the upper side of the apothecia in the form of a hymenium.

In many Ascomycetes the fruiting bodies are immersed in a thick matting of hyphae, known as the stroma, which varies in shape, size, and color. In Basidiomycetes, the fruiting bodies may be laminate, procumbent on the substrate (resupinate forms), hoof-shaped (agarics), club-shaped, branching (Clavaria), umbrella-shaped, in the form of caps on a stalk (Hymeno-mycetes), spherical, or pear-shaped (puffballs).

In certain other fungi, one distinguishes gymnocarpous fruiting bodies, which have an open hymenium; hemiangiocarpous fruiting bodies, which are semiclosed; and angiocarpous fruiting bodies, which are completely closed. Spores, or basidiospores, develop in definite places on the surface of the fruiting body (for example, the laminae of Russula and Lactarius deliciosus; in the tubules of cepes) or within the fruiting body (for example, in puffballs).

Some fungi have no fruiting bodies. These include lower fungi (Phycomycetes), some Ascomycetes (such as yeasts), some Basidiomycetes (Ustilaginales, Uredinales), and all Fungi Imperfecti. Sometimes fruiting bodies are incorrectly called pycnidia, which are actually the spore carriers of Sphaeropsidales of the order Fungi Imperfecti.

M. A. LITVINOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Figure 10 shows a fruiting body at Side B of the shadow board along with accompanying images obtained in this area.
Antitumor activity and some properties of watersoluble polysaccharides from "Himematsutake", the fruiting body of Agaricus blazei Murrill.
Her comparisons revealed that frosty pod is also an agaric, despite the fact that it doesn't form a mushroom-type fruiting body.
14) Researchers obtained various fractions by continually refining down the elements in the fruiting body of maitake.
0 mm diameter), cupshaped structures, whereas Physalacria maipoensis produces a "capitate" fruiting body, which has a globose head on a short stalk (ca.
Sterile base: Well-developed, up to about 1/3 of the fruiting body, interior dull white with small chambers; base bearing many white mycelial threads (rhizomorphs).
The typical saprophytic fungus has two distinct stages: an above-ground fruiting body, which is the reproductive stage, and a complex of branching filaments called hyphae, which extend gradually through the substratum of the soil or organic debris that the fungus colonizes.
More worrying is what they may be the fruiting body o and how this is best treated.
The fungus produces a sexual fruiting body called cleistothecium," explained Gubler.