Fruiting Body

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fruiting body

[′früd·iŋ ‚bäd·ē]
(botany)
A specialized, spore-producing organ.

Fruiting Body

 

the receptacle of sporebearing organs found in most ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The fruiting body is formed by the interweaving of the hyphae of the mycelium and usually constitutes a visible part of the fungus. Only in truffles and a few other fungi is the entire body, including the fruiting body, hidden in the soil. The shape, size, consistency, and color of fruiting bodies vary widely and are considered as morphological characteristics in the taxonomy of fungi.

The following three types of fruiting bodies are distinguished in Ascomycetes: the cleistothecium, the perithecium, and the apothecium. The cleistothecia are rounded and closed and have a peridium (outer envelope). There are no special openings, and the asci develop the fruiting body either randomly or in bundles. The spores, or ascospores, are released from the fruiting body after the decay (in Plectascales) or rupture (in Erysiphaceae) of the peridium. Perithecia, which are pitcher-shaped, oval, or spherical, have a narrow opening at the top. Apothecia are saucer-shaped or cup-shaped. Less frequently they resemble little cushions or caps on a stalk (for example, in morels). The asci are distributed on the upper side of the apothecia in the form of a hymenium.

In many Ascomycetes the fruiting bodies are immersed in a thick matting of hyphae, known as the stroma, which varies in shape, size, and color. In Basidiomycetes, the fruiting bodies may be laminate, procumbent on the substrate (resupinate forms), hoof-shaped (agarics), club-shaped, branching (Clavaria), umbrella-shaped, in the form of caps on a stalk (Hymeno-mycetes), spherical, or pear-shaped (puffballs).

In certain other fungi, one distinguishes gymnocarpous fruiting bodies, which have an open hymenium; hemiangiocarpous fruiting bodies, which are semiclosed; and angiocarpous fruiting bodies, which are completely closed. Spores, or basidiospores, develop in definite places on the surface of the fruiting body (for example, the laminae of Russula and Lactarius deliciosus; in the tubules of cepes) or within the fruiting body (for example, in puffballs).

Some fungi have no fruiting bodies. These include lower fungi (Phycomycetes), some Ascomycetes (such as yeasts), some Basidiomycetes (Ustilaginales, Uredinales), and all Fungi Imperfecti. Sometimes fruiting bodies are incorrectly called pycnidia, which are actually the spore carriers of Sphaeropsidales of the order Fungi Imperfecti.

M. A. LITVINOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Thickness of the pileus of four randomly selected fruiting bodies was recorded using a slide calliper.
Days required for completion spawn run, pinhead initiation and matured fruiting bodies
For the determination of minerals, the air-dried fruiting bodies were subjected to elemental analysis using Thermo EDX System (Noran System 6, Ultra Dry, 10mm2 SDD crystal, 129eV resolution, NORVAR window, LN2-Free Type Detector) installed in Hitachi SU1510 Scanning Electron Microscope.
Fungal decay fruiting bodies that appear on WPCs have been described (Morris and Cooper 1998, Manning and Ascherl 2007, Laks et al.
militaris fruiting bodies using a solid rice-based medium inoculated with liquid spawn as shown in Fig.
At the time of the transfer, no fruiting bodies of the rust fungus had appeared, but 20 clusters of the transferred larvae were on trees that developed needle rust during April 1993.
When fruiting bodies were found, the samples were placed in clean wax paper envelopes and taken to a dark room to confirm the presence of bioluminescence.
A protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity inhibitor from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.
The parameters studied were weekly mycelia growth, number of flushes, pin head formation, maturation of fruiting bodies, period between flushes and number of fruiting bodies.
All the tested concentrations of neem derivatives and Polytrin-C when observed 144h after spray significantly reduced the percent damage of the fruiting bodies of cotton by spotted boll worm; as 19.
Results on time required for completion of spawn running, formation of pin- heads and maturation of fruiting bodies on different substrates indicated that in all the cases, they appeared earlier on cotton waste.