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any of a class of carboncarbon
[Lat.,=charcoal], nonmetallic chemical element; symbol C; at. no. 6; interval in which at. wt. ranges 12.0096–12.0116; m.p. about 3,550°C;; graphite sublimes about 3,375°C;; b.p. 4,827°C;; sp. gr. 1.8–2.1 (amorphous), 1.9–2.3 (graphite), 3.
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 molecules in which the carbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonal faces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form a hollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure. The smallest possible fullerene molecule may have as few as 32 atoms of carbon, although fullerenelike molecules (lacking a hexagonal face) with as few as 20 carbon atoms have been found.

The most common and most stable fullerene is buckminsterfullerenebuckminsterfullerene
or buckyball,
C60, hollow cage carbon molecule named for R. Buckminster Fuller because of the resemblance of its molecular structure to his geodesic domes.
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, a spheroidal molecule, resembling a soccer ball, consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Buckminsterfullerene is the most abundant cluster of carbon atoms found in carbon soot. It is also the smallest carbon molecule whose pentagonal faces are isolated from each other. Other fullerenes that have been produced in macroscopic amounts have 70, 76, 84, 90, and 96 carbon atoms, and much larger fullerenes have been found, such as those that contain 180, 190, 240, and 540 carbon atoms.

Fullerenes were first identified in 1985 as products of experiments in which graphite was vaporized using a laser, work for which R. F. Curl, Jr., R. E. Smally, and H. W. Kroto shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Fullerenes have since been discovered in nature as a result of lightning strikes, in the residue produced by carbon arc lamps, in interstellar dust, and in meteorites.

Fullerene chemistry involves substituting metal atoms for one or more carbon atoms in the molecule to produce compounds called fullerides. Among these are conducting films of alkali metal-doped fullerenes and superconductors (potassium-doped Tc 18°K;, rubidium-doped Tc 30°K;). Fullerenes also have been used to produce tiny diamonds and thin diamond films. Fullerene research is expected to lead to new materials, lubricants, coatings, catalysts, electro-optical devices, and medical applications.


See M. S. Dresselhaus et al., Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (1996); H. W. Kroto, The Fullerenes: New Horizons for the Chemistry, Physics, and Astrophysics of Carbon (1997); R. Taylor, ed., Lecture Notes on Fullerene Chemistry (1999).


A large molecule composed entirely of carbon, with the chemical formula Cn , where n is any even number from 32 to over 100; believed to have the structure of a hollow spheroidal cage with a surface network of carbon atoms connected in hexagonal and pentagonal rings.
References in periodicals archive ?
Other federal agencies such as the NIH, NSF, DOE, DOD, and NIST also make large investments in the field of fullerenes and nanomaterial research.
For instance, fullerenes are currently used as electron acceptors in polymer-based solar cells, achieving some of the highest power conversion efficiencies known for these kinds of solar cells.
Schein experimented with various fullerenes to see whether the dihedral angle discrepancy could be set to zero.
SDK) have entered into a strategic partnership in the Fullerene business.
The SEM of all epoxy polymers unmodified and modified with fullerene [C.
In the first, they infused cancer cells in a laboratory with a variety of functionalized fullerenes known to be biologically safe called polyhydroxy fullerenes.
Types of fullerenes: Alkali doped fullerenes are structures with alkali metal atoms in between fullerenes contributing valence electrons to neighbouring fullerenes (24).
That's why buckyballs have been showing up in some cosmetic products, such as Zelens Fullerene C-60 Day Cream[TM].
60] fullerenes and investigated the resulting induced oxidative stress.
Photoinduced polymerization and adsorption of oxygen are well known in fullerenes.
Beauty and health researchers are excited about the delivery potential of something called Fullerenes, which could make you beautiful inside as well as out.
Previously only made in the laboratory, groups of carbon 3 molecules - known as fullerenes - are thought to exist within stars.