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a family of dicotyledonous plants related to the Papaveraceae family; the two families are sometimes considered as one. They are herbs with deeply dissected leaves and sometimes with a tuber-like root. The petals (four, in two circles) have spurlike or sacklike processes at the base; sometimes only the outer petal has a spur. There are about six stamens, growing together in groups of three. The fruit is podlike or nutlike, and the seeds usually have appendages. There are about 16 genera comprising over 400 species and growing primarily in the northern temperate zone. Some species may be found in southern and eastern Africa. The most important genera are Fumaria, Corydalis, Dicentra, and Rupicapnos.