Fumarole

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fumarole

[′fyü·mə‚rōl]
(geology)
A hole, usually found in volcanic areas, from which vapors or gases escape.

Fumarole

 

a small vent or fissure from which hot gases issue. The gases may include H2O, HCl, HF, SO2, CO2, CO, H2S, and H2. If the gases are emitted from magma, the vent is called a primary fumarole; if they are emitted from lava flows or pyroclastics that have not yet solidified, the vent is referred to as a secondary, or rootless, fumarole.

Fumaroles may be located in the crater, on the slopes, or at the foot of a volcano. The gases are emitted under pressure, frequently resulting in a loud hissing or roaring. As the temperature decreases, the water vapor undergoes a transformation to the liquid state. Depending on thermodynamic conditions, certain gases emitted along with the water vapor are dissolved in the liquid water, as are various gases and substances that are produced as a result of reactions with the wall rock and that are encountered on the way to the earth’s surface. In this way, hydrothermal solutions form hot springs in the vicinity of active volcanoes.

The deposition of sublimates of halides, sulfates, native sulfur, and other minerals is associated with fumaroles.

V. I. VLODAVETS

References in periodicals archive ?
The fumaroles that sculpt the caves are of extreme interest, because they provide a window into the mountain's heart.
2]) from steam vents, fumaroles, and gas seeps that are toxic in sufficient concentrations but odorless and therefore not repellent to animal life.
The Afar people have adapted to gather water for themselves and their goats from natural fumaroles, or steam vents.
As long as the volcano is expelling fumaroles, there is no danger; it would be dangerous if it were blocked.
That is evidence of prior hydrothermal activity, perhaps akin to hot springs or fumaroles - features that, at Yellowstone National Park for instance, teem with organisms.
Hydrated silica identified by the spectrometer in uphill locations-confirmed by stereo imaging-has indicated that hot springs or fumaroles fed by underground heating created these deposits.
Even though it hasn't erupted in the past 1,000 years, visitors can visit cracks in the Earth called fumaroles where clouds of sulfur drift out of the ground.
The surface manifestation of the island s geothermal activity is centered on its Sulphur Springs region that includes boiling mud pools, steam fumaroles as well as hot springs.
The release of gas or steam from 1985 to 2002, was continuous at NRV, making it possible to observe many fumaroles inside the active crater and huge vapor columns almost daily.
Mud pots and fumaroles bubble, splutter, gurgle and fill your nose with bad egg smells.
Yellowstone's Favorite Geysers, Hot Springs, and Fumaroles, with Personal Accounts by Early Explorers" focuses on the extreme natural features of Yellowstone National Park and is packed cover to cover with nature photos that will awe-inspire.
Much like the geysers, hot springs, and fumaroles (steam and gas vents) at Yellowstone National Park, the approximately 2,800 hot springs in and around Beppu are fueled by volcanic activity very close to Earth's crust.