# Binding Energy

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Related to Fusion energy: cold fusion, Fusion power

## binding energy

[′bīn·diŋ ¦en·ər·jē]
(physics)
Abbreviated BE. Also known as total binding energy (TBE).
The net energy required to remove a particle from a system.
The net energy required to decompose a system into its constituent particles.

## Energy, Binding

(also separation energy), the energy of any bound system of particles (such as an atom) equal to the work required to decompose the system into constituent particles such that they are an infinite distance from each other and cannot interact. It is a negative quantity, since energy is released in the course of the formation of the bound state, and its absolute value characterizes the bond strength (for example, the stability of nuclei).

According to the Einstein relation, the binding energy is equivalent to the mass defect Δm: ΔE = Δmc2, where c is the velocity of light in a vacuum (seeMASS DEFECT). It is determined by the type of interaction between the particles in a given system. Thus, the binding energy of the nucleus is due to the strong interactions of the nucleons in the nucleus (in the more stable nuclei of intermediate atoms, the specific binding energy is ~8 × 106 electron volts [eV]). The energy may be released when light nuclei fuse into heavier ones, as well as upon the fission of heavy nuclei, which is explained by the decrease of the specific binding energy with increasing atomic number.

The binding energy of electrons in an atom or molecule is determined by the electromagnetic interactions, and for each electron it is proportional to the ionization potential; it is equal to 13.6 eV for an electron of the hydrogen atom in the normal state. These same interactions are responsible for the binding energy of atoms in a molecule or crystal. In the case of the gravitational interaction, the binding energy is ordinarily small; however, it may be of considerable magnitude for certain celestial objects, such as black holes.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Division 4 Fusion Energy Device Code Rules will be developed by various project teams within the Division 4 Subgroup and will be coordinated with other stakeholders.
Bond Laboratories will spend more than \$8 million over the next 12 months marketing Fusion Energy.
Its activities will complement the other parts of the integrated European fusion energy research programme carried out in national fusion laboratories in the EU member states and other associated European countries - Bulgaria and Romania, plus Switzerland since 1979 - under the Euratom umbrella.
This, in turn, means that the materials to be used for the walls in ITERthe worlds largest future tokamak to demonstrate fusion energy production at industrial scalewill result in a significantly reduced trapping of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen in the fuel.
Address : The European Joint Undertaking For Iter And The Development Of Fusion Energy (Fusion For Energy)
Sessler, an expert in accelerator physics who also made many contributions to fusion energy programs over several decades, passed away April 17, 2014 following a long illness.
While the fusion rates observed so far are small, the discovery of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter opens the possibility at least of a new path to fusion energy," they write in a manuscript now under review by NATURE.
They write, "As fiscal year (FY) 2014 has started and you consider legislation to fund the government for the entire year, we ask you to support a vibrant domestic fusion energy program".
20 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, they suggest their new plasma will prove useful as a source of particle "bullets" for accelerators and as a tool to develop better fusion energy reactors, among other applications.

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