The growth effects elicited by E2 and atrazine were not evident in the presence of AG and PD (Figure 4B,F) or when the expression of GPER or ER[alpha] was silenced (Figure 4C,D,G,H), suggesting that both receptors, along with the EGFR/MAPK transduction pathway, contribute to the proliferation induced by atrazine.
In these cells that express GPER and lack ER[alpha] (Figure 5; see also Supplemental Material, Figure S5), E2 and atrazine stimulated ERK phosphorylation and the expression of both c-fos and CTGF through GPER (Figure 5A,B).
In the present study, we observed that atrazine exerted estrogen-like activity in ovarian and breast cancer cells and in CAFs through GPER, which mediated estrogen signals, as reported in previous studies (reviewed by Prossnitz and Barton 2014).
BPA is one of several environmental estrogens that have exhibited the ability to bind to GPER (Thomas and Dong 2006) and to activate transduction pathways (Dong et al.
In this study, we demonstrate that BPA exerts a stimulatory action through GPER in breast cancer cells and CAFs.
The short hair-pin (sh) RNA constructs to knock down the expression of GPER and CTGF and the unrelated shRNA control construct have been described previously (Pandey et al.
In the present study the ER[alpha]-selective ligand PPT caused both ERK phosphorylation and proliferation, consistent with that hypothesis, whereas selective GPER liganding mostly inhibited both processes at expected physiologic concentrations.
We have examined only limited cases, where ER[alpha] and perhaps GPER are involved in causing some kinase activations/deactivations.
I saw the documentation that GPERS apparently met the 120-day deadline but EWMC refused to honor it," Allen said.
In his July 15 conversation with Moore, Holmes noted that under its contract with GPERS, EWMC is required to provide GPERS with a "full set of drawings" of "the whole, finished, commercialized (tire reduction) unit.
In its 26-page claim which will be heard by a three-judge arbitration panel in Toronto comprised of sitting or former judges from the Ontario Court, General Division, or its predecessor court, or from a higher court, GPERS states that EWMC's fraudulent acts, omissions, misrepresentations, non-performance and other breaches of contract have caused it major "irreparable" damages in loss of profits and expenses as well as probable losses through not being able to exercise its stock options.
In an effort to induce GPERS to enter into the License Agreement EWMC invited Moore (GPERS President James E.