Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

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Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

 

NH2CH2CH2CH2COOH, an acid formed by the decarboxylation of glutaminic acid under the action of the enzyme decarboxylase. In the body, metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid gives succinic acid, which participates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Free gamma-aminobutyric acid is found in many plants. In higher mammals gamma-aminobutyric acid is only found in the brain, where its concentration reaches 100 mg percent. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is assumed to exert a retarding action on nerve activity, which is apparently associated with its effect on the permeability of biological membranes.

References in periodicals archive ?
An increase in theta power is related to an increase in theta in the hippocampus, known to be an inhibitory rhythm associated with GABAergic activity (Klimesch et al.
Numerous studies have established that acute and chronic behavioral effects of alcohol are differentially mediated through GABAergic receptor subunits (for a review, see Grobin et al.
Thus GABAergic, glutamatergic, monoamine and NO systems (Adachi et al.
Their binding to the allosteric site of the receptors enhances the affinity of the GABA-binding site for GABA, which results in an enhancement of chloride influx and facilitates the GABAergic transmission (Olsen 1981; Ticku and Maksay 1983).
Cyclosporin also neuroprotects against the slow brain degenerations of the vulnerable neuron populations seen in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (protects septal cholinergic neurons), Parkinson's disease (preserves substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons), Huntington's disease (retains striatal GABAergic interneurons) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (slows the loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord).
Other neurotransmitter systems may also be affected by exposure to Ginkgo biloba including adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems (reviewed by Ahlemeyer and Krieglstein, 2003).
Protective effect of safranal on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in the rat: involvement of the GABAergic and opioids systems.
In an attempt to uncover a common site of cellular action for abused substances, the authors focused on the GABAergic system, a critical modulator of local synaptic activity in the CeA, a brain region considered to be a key element of the brain reward system.
The nondopaminergic neuronal subpopulation in these regions includes GABAergic (Deniau et al.