García Moreno, Gabriel

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García Moreno, Gabriel

(gäbrēĕl` gärsē`ä mōrā`nō), 1821–75, president of Ecuador (1861–65, 1869–75), b. Guayaquil. A conservative with deep religious convictions, he gradually came to believe that Ecuadorans could only be united as a nation through their common Roman Catholic faith. As president he promulgated new constitutions (1861, 1869), signed (1862) a concordat with the church by which the civil power became the guarantor and executor of the church's independence and granted to it control over education, and ultimately established an authoritarian government in which Roman Catholic influence was paramount. A storm of liberal opposition was vigorously suppressed. Between terms as president he retained his hold by installing puppets. He was reelected in 1869 and granted additional privileges to the clerics; he also took extraordinary powers for himself. He is remembered more for his strong views and personality than his ability as an administrator who put his country on a sound financial basis and introduced a number of important material reforms. He was assassinated.

García Moreno, Gabriel

 

Born Oct. 24, 1821, in Guayaquil; died Aug. 6, 1875, in Quito. Ecuadorian political figure.

García Moreno headed Equador’s provisional government in 1860; he was president from 1861 to 1865. In 1869 he staged a coup d’etat and proclaimed himself dictator and turned the country into a theocratic state of sorts. By a concordat with the Pope on Sept. 26, 1862, Catholicism was acknowledged the sole religion and 10 percent of the revenue was allotted annually to the Vatican treasury. Education was put in the hands of the Jesuits. García Moreno’s dictatorship of clerics and landowners dealt savagely with its opponents, cruelly suppressing the protests of the working people and in particular of the Indians. García Moreno was assassinated by a group of students who had organized a conspiracy against him.

B. I. KOVAL

References in periodicals archive ?
Es decir, despues del cuatrienio de Sixto Duran-Ballen (1992-1996) Rafael Correa es el primer mandatario que completa su periodo, ademas de ser junto con Gabriel Garcia Moreno (1861-1865 y 1869-1875) y Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra (1934, 1944, 1952, 1960 y 1968) los unicos presidentes que han sido electos mas de tres ocasiones en la historia de este pais.
Filmada por Gabriel Garcia Moreno hacia 1927 en Orizaba, Veracruz, la pelicula silente de ficcion El puno de hierro, la cual aborda el problema de la adiccion a la heroina, fue restaurada digitalmente a iniciativa de la Filmoteca de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) y la Academia Mexicana de Artes y Ciencias Cinematograficas (Amacc).
Ejemplos egregios son a mediados del siglo XIX, durante la fase de construccion de los Estados nacionales, las dictaduras del argentino Juan Manuel de Rosas, el paraguayo Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia y el ecuatoriano Gabriel Garcia Moreno, a fines de ese mismo siglo las del venezolano Antonio Guzman Blanco, el colombiano Rafael Nunez, el guatemalteco Manuel Estrada Cabrera y el de don Porfirio mexicano, para continuar luego en direccion al siglo XX, donde nos topamos con los despotismos de Juan Vicente Gomez en Venezuela, con la dinastia de los Somoza en Nicaragua, con Rafael Leonidas Trujillo en la Republica Dominicana, con el colombiano Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, con el cubano Fulgencio Batista y con el haitiano Francois Duvalier, entre otros.
Asimismo, como puede leerse mas adelante, las posibilidades de la monarquia--forma de gobierno que se piensa era, para la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, considerada vetusta, polvosa y retardataria--sedujeron, de manera predecible quiza, al paladin del conservadurismo ecuatoriano, Gabriel Garcia Moreno, pero tambien, aunque ciertamente de forma fugaz y coyuntural, a uno de los paladines del liberalismo argentino, Juan Bautista Alberdi.
Por su parte, Ana Maria Goetschel y Eduardo Kingman, en "El presidente Gabriel Garcia Moreno, el Concordato y la administracion de poblaciones en el Ecuador de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX", abordan la transicion del patronato al concordato a traves del estudio del proyecto de asistencia social del presidente Gabriel Garcia Moreno y el papel de las instituciones eclesiasticas entre 1860 y 1875.
Las circunstancias que condujeron a la entrada de los jesuitas al Oriente ecuatoriano tienen que ver con las acciones del devoto y conservador presidente Gabriel Garcia Moreno (1860-1865, 1869-1875) pero tambien con el proceso de formacion del estado-nacion y con la situacion especifica de la region amazonica.
En tanto que el presidente Gabriel Garcia Moreno pidio el concurso de su antiguo adversario, el general Juan Jose Flores, para frenar dichas incursiones.
Derek Williams analyzes how Ecuadorian President Gabriel Garcia Moreno used his conservative and authoritarian brand of Catholic morality to extend state power over indigenous peoples and women.
Este articulo aborda aspectos de la plasmacion constitucional del proyecto conservador ecuatoriano que se desarrollo bajo el liderazgo de Gabriel Garcia Moreno, entre 1860-1875.
1860: Gabriel Garcia Moreno assumes power and becomes the strongest leader in a series of conservative dictators.
A bitter foe of tyranny, Montalvo attacked Ecuadoran dictator Gabriel Garcia Moreno in the pages of his journal El cosmopolita.
A bitter foe of tyranny, Montalvo attacked Ecuadorian dictator Gabriel Garcia Moreno in the pages of his journal El cosmopolita.